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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

heat grill

heat grill n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...grill n . A device consisting of closely packed alternating warm (40˚ C) and cool (20˚ C) bars used for eliciting the thermal grill illusion...

minimum separable

minimum separable n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...separable n. A measure of visual acuity , usually determined with an acuity grating , equal to the visual angle corresponding to the finest grating in which separate bars can be distinguished. A person with normal 20/20 vision according to the Snellen fraction has a minimum separable of approximately 1/60 of a degree or one minute of arc. Compare minimum visible...

semantic satiation

semantic satiation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...satiation n . A peculiar sense of loss of meaning that occurs when a word is recited slowly 15 or 20 times in succession. Compare verbal transformation effect...

profound mental retardation

profound mental retardation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...mental retardation n . An obsolete term for a level of intellectual disability associated with IQ below approximately 20 (in adults, mental age below 3 years). Also called profound mental subnormality...

Snellen fraction

Snellen fraction n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...the smallest at the bottom. The person being tested normally stands 20 feet or 6 metres from the chart and reads as many letters as possible starting at the top, and a score is assigned in the form of the ratio or fraction d / d n , where d is the viewer’s distance from the chart and d n is the distance at which a viewer with normal visual acuity could read the smallest letters that the person being tested can read. On this scale 20/20 vision is normal by definition, and 20/200 vision is a criterion of blindness originally introduced by the American...

auditory receptor

auditory receptor n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...receptor n. A sensory receptor consisting of hair cells in the basilar membrane of the organ of Corti that translate sound waves—pressure waves with frequencies between 16 hertz and 20,000 hertz—into nerve impulses. Also called a phonoreceptor...

fixed-interval schedule

fixed-interval schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...schedule n. In operant conditioning , a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a predetermined time interval, and then the first response that it makes after the same interval, and so on, the duration of the interval being specified in seconds as an affix to the abbreviation, hence FI20 indicates a fixed-interval schedule with a 20-second interval. Also called a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule . See also simple reinforcement schedule . Compare fixed-ratio schedule ,...

severe mental retardation

severe mental retardation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...mental retardation n . An obsolescent term for a level of intellectual disability associated with IQ approximately between 20 and 35 (in adults, mental age from 3 to under 6 years). Also called severe mental subnormality...

variable-interval schedule

variable-interval schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...schedule n . In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a random time interval, and then the first response that it makes after another random time interval, and so on, the average length of the interval being specified in seconds as an affix to the abbreviation, hence VI20 indicates a variable-interval schedule with an average interval of 20 seconds. Also called a variable-interval reinforcement schedule . See also simple reinforcement schedule ....

tunnel vision

tunnel vision n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...vision n . A form of visual impairment in which the visual field is decreased, creating the effect of looking down a narrow tube or tunnel, often resulting from advanced chronic glaucoma . The American Foundation for the Blind defines a visual field subtending a visual angle of 20 degrees or less as a criterion of blindness...

Kuder–Richardson coefficient

Kuder–Richardson coefficient n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...coefficient n . In psychometrics, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of reliability in the special case of a scale with pass/fail, yes/no, or other dichotomous test items. There are two slightly different versions based on different statistical assumptions: the Kuder–Richardson 20 formula and the Kuder–Richardson 21 formula, named after equation numbers in Kuder and Richardson’s 1937 article. K–R 20 or K–R 21 abbrev . [Named after the US psychologists George Frederic (Fritz) Kuder ( 1903–2000 ) and Marion Webster Richardson (...

bandwidth

bandwidth n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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... n. The range of frequencies over which a sense organ or any other communication channel functions or responds. Thus the human auditory system responds within a bandwidth corresponding to the audibility range from about 16 hertz to 20,000 hertz (cycles per second). See also spectrum...

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...Anxiety Inventory n . A questionnaire comprising two separate self-rating scales, one measuring state anxiety and the other trait anxiety, each scale containing 20 items. The inventory was first published by the US psychologist Charles D(onald) Spielberger ( 1927–2013 ) and several colleagues in 1970 . STAI abbrev...

far point

far point n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...point n. The most distant point from the eye at which an object is focused on the retina without accommodation ( 1 ) of the crystalline lens, theoretically located at infinity for a normal eye but in practice usually set as 6 metres or 20 feet. See also range of accommodation . Compare near point...

phon

phon n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...unit of loudness level, ranging upwards from zero for the faintest audible sound. The loudness in phons of a sound is defined as the intensity level in units of decibel sound pressure level ( dB SPL ) of a comparison pure tone of 1,000 hertz that is judged by the listener to be equally loud. Thus if the comparison tone is 20 dB SPL, then the loudness of any tone of another frequency that is judged to be equally loud is defined to be 20 phons; if the comparison tone is 40 dB SPL, then any tone judged equally loud is 40 phons, and so on. See also ...

saccade

saccade n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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... n . A rapid ballistic movement of the eyes, lasting 20 to 100 milliseconds, as they jump from one fixation point to the next when reading or tracking a moving object or image. A microsaccade is a small saccade occurring as part of physiological nystagmus during visual fixation of a stationary object. See also autokinetic effect , change blindness , eye-tracking , feedforward , visual suppression . Compare smooth eye movement . saccadic adj . [French saccade a jerk, from Old French saquer to...

stroke

stroke n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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... n . A blockage or (in about 20 per cent of cases) a haemorrhage of blood vessels in the brain, leading to a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to brain tissues normally perfused with blood by those vessels, lasting for more than 24 hours if the patient survives. The consequences depend on the site and extent of the stroke but often include paralysis (especially hemiplegia on the side of the body opposite the stroke), homonymous hemianopia , amnesia , aphasia , agraphia , convulsions , or coma . Also called cerebrovascular accident or CVA ....

ablation experiment

ablation experiment n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...experiment n. A basic research method of physiological psychology based on ablation , especially during the first three-quarters of the 20th century, in which an attempt is made to determine the functions of a specific region of the nervous system by examining the behavioural effects of its surgical removal. It was pioneered in 1824 by the French physiologist Marie Jean Pierre Flourens ( 1794–1867 ) and is also called a lesion experiment...

genetic polymorphism

genetic polymorphism n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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...polymorphism n . The existence in a population of variable alleles coding for differences in phenotypic characteristics, such as the alleles coding for different eye colours or different ABO blood types in humans, a gene locus being defined as polymorphic if the most frequent homozygote constitutes less than 90 per cent of the population. It has been estimated that between 20 and 50 per cent of all structural gene loci in humans occur in two or more allelic forms. See also balanced polymorphism , neutral mutation , polymorphic gene , ...

cohort

cohort n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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... n. A group of people who share some experience or demographic trait in common, especially that of being the same age (an age cohort). A cohort study is a type of research design in which a cohort of individuals is investigated repeatedly over an extended period. A cohort effect is a potentially misleading conclusion about developmental changes derived from a cross-sectional study , such as the conclusion that individual IQs decline precipitately from about 20 years of age, a finding that is in fact due to younger cohorts having higher average IQs...

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