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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Donald Fraser

Donald Fraser  

Donald MacKay Fraser played a critical role in making human rights a more important part of U.S. policy. Fraser was born on 20 February 1924 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Everett ...
International Committee of the Red Cross

International Committee of the Red Cross  

Founder of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and promoter of the Geneva Conventions for the protection of war victims, the International Committee of the Red Cross endeavors ...
Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,309 words

... Projects, 2008–2009 . http://www.indexoncensorship.org/?p=356 . Index on Censorship. Winners of the Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Awards 2007 . Press release. March 14, 2007. http://www.gristcommunications.com/media/Winners%20of%20the%20Index%20on%20Censorship%20Freedom%20of%20Expression%20Awards%202007.pdf . International Freedom of Expression Exchange. Amnesty Awards Recognise Persecuted Journalists . June 24, 2008. http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/94791 . Scammell, Michael . “How Index on Censorship Started.” Index on...

Jus Cogens

Jus Cogens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,882 words

...by the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the Human Rights Situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran . At paragraph 19. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1985/20, 1985. Restatement (Third) of the Law: The Foreign Relations Law of the United States . § 102. St. Paul, Minn.: American Law Institute, 1987. United Nations. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2001 . Vol. 2, pt. 2. A/CN.4/SER.A/2001/Add.1. “Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.” 1155 United Nations Treaty Series . P. 331. ...

Chechnya

Chechnya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,190 words

....] bibliography American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus. Ingushetia: Trends behind the Recent Violence: Interview with Eliza Musaeva and Tanya Lokshina . Interview conducted by Iva Savic, October 28, 2007. http://peaceinthecaucasus.org/PDF%20and%20Audio%20files/Eliza%20Musaeva%20and%20Tanya%20Lokshina%20Interview.html American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Catastrophe in Chechnya: Escaping the Quagmire . Transcript of conference held December 10, 2003. Amnesty International. Russia . ...

Care International

Care International   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,254 words

.... New York: Routledge, 2005. Jones, Andrew . Incorporation of a Rights-Based Approach into CARE's Program Cycle, a Discussion Paper for CARE's Program Staff. July 2001. http://www.pqdl.care.org . Martinez, Eliza . The Courage to Change: Confronting the Limits and Unleashing the Potential of CARE's Programming for Women. Synthesis Report: Phase 2. CARE International Strategic Impact Inquiry on Women's Empowerment. February 2006. http://www.csps.emory.edu/SII%20Phase%202%20Synthesis%20Report%20Final.pdf . McCaston, M. Catherine . Moving CARE's Programming...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,695 words

...20Conflict%20-%20Eng%209%20october.pdf . Rose, David . “The Gaza Bombshell.” Vanity Fair , April 2008. Simpson, Gerlad . Detainees’ Denied Justice: The Palestinian Authority's Contempt for Its Judiciary. July 1999. A comprehensive background report on the PA Judiciary covering the period from 1994–1999 and funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Canada Fund, European Foundation, Finnish Representative's Office to the PNA, the Moriah Fund and the Government of the Netherland. http://www.phrmg.org/PHRMG%20Documents/Detainees%20Denied%20...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,202 words

...Judaism. In 2007 the Israeli population was approximately 7.2 million. Some 20 percent of the Jewish people in Israel are religious and may prefer theocracy over democracy. Some 20 percent of the Israeli people are Palestinian Arabs who do not endorse the Zionist ethos of the state. A further 20 percent of Israelis arrived from the Soviet Union and are in many cases unfamiliar with the practice of democracy. Most of the Russian immigrants are secular, if not agnostic. A third of them are said to be Christian. This mixture sets the scene for the...

International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)

International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,601 words

... 2008–2009 stood at close to $20 million, a 20 percent increase over the previous year. Contribution The founding and growth of the ICTJ mirror an equivalent blossoming of the field of transitional justice more generally. “Transitional justice” was a new and little-known area of work when the Center was founded. It is now a widely recognized term. For example, UN program staff members carry the title of “transitional justice advisor” in many postconflict contexts, and in some universities students receive master's degrees with a concentration in transitional...

Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,437 words

...alternative “big idea” that seemed to offer a morally satisfying antidote to the mid-1970s American malaise. “Our commitment to human rights must be absolute,” declared Carter in his 20 January 1977 inauguration speech. A few days later he was presented with a perfect opportunity to display this commitment when Andrei Sakharov complained to him about Moscow's persecution of Soviet dissidents. Carter wrote back that the United States would “promote respect for human rights not only in our country but also abroad”—a bland statement that nonetheless provoked...

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...speeches thus contain reference to Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which specifically prohibits propaganda for war. Membership, Committees, and Congresses As of September 2008 , P.E.N. comprised 146 centers in 104 countries on six continents—with a total membership of more than ten thousand writers. International P.E.N. has many subcommittees, including a Writers for Peace Committee (established in 1984 and coordinated by the Slovene P.E.N.; chair, Edvard Kovac), a Women Writers’ Committee (established in 1991 ...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...the commander at the Sobibor and Treblinka camps. Through his many lectures worldwide, Wiesenthal promoted tolerance and understanding, and a heightened awareness of the evils and dangers of racism. He died in Vienna on 20 September 2005 at the age of ninety-six. Early Life Wiesenthal's father, Hans, was a commodities trader and Austrian Army officer who died in combat during World War I. Young Simon survived a pogrom by the Cossacks in which he was injured. He attended secondary school in Galicia and later studied architecture, receiving his degree from...

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,894 words

...the development of policies that affect them” (Bellamy, p. 20). The notion of giving those affected by development more “voice” is now widely accepted as a key strategy for effective and sustainable development. From a rights perspective, this approach means that children and their caregivers are more able both to articulate their own needs and to demand that governments be held accountable for their responsibilities. If children have rights, then governments (and others) have corresponding duties, and a rights-based approach must mean that there is...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...more than 20,000 “disappeared” and about 1 million internally displaced. Both the government and LTTE have engaged in significant human rights abuses, with the LTTE responsible for the vast majority. There is also significant evidence that armed groups linked to the government have engaged in killings and abuses. The LTTE is also responsible, most notoriously, for its use of child soldiers and terrorist tactics such as suicide bombings. In addition, the LTTE ordered the assassination of numerous Sri Lankan politicians, including a president, a foreign...

International Council on Human Rights Policy

International Council on Human Rights Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,918 words

...also sponsored its work. The bulk of the organization's 2007 income of 2.180 million Swiss francs (20 percent) came from the United States (40 percent), half of which came from the Ford Foundation; the bulk of the remainder came from Switzerland (7 percent), Sweden (10 percent), the Netherlands (14 percent), and the United Kingdom (29 percent). In previous years, the governments of Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway also supported the Council, as did the Oak Foundation, Oxfam (United Kingdom), Christian Aid, and the Catholic Agency for Overseas...

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,021 words

...of human rights was born on 20 April 1889 into the family of a customs official of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Always close to his mother Klara, Hitler maintained a troubled relationship with his father Alois, most likely because of young Adolf's disinterest in serious study and the kind of dedication to work that had enabled his father to build a substantial career as a civil servant in spite of his impoverished origins. Although all known evidence suggests the father established good relations with individuals from a variety of national and religious...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,844 words

...Report 20, no. 2(E), February 17, 2008. http://hrw.org/reports/2008/lebanon0208/lebanon0208web.pdf . Perthes, Volker . “ Myths and Money: Four Years of Hariri and Lebanon's Preparation for a New Middle East. ” Middle East Report 203 (Spring 1997): 30–32. A summary overview of the premises underlying the plan for postwar economic reconstruction in Lebanon. Argues that when scuttled, one such premise—progress in the Arab-Israeli peace talks—put reconstruction at risk. Saadeh, Sofia . The Quest for Citizenship in Post Taef Lebanon . Beirut: Sade, 2007. A...

African Union

African Union   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,913 words

...Procedures. ” Human Rights Quarterly 20, no. 2 (1998): 235–280. Ouguergouz, Fatsah . The African Charter on Human and People's Rights: A Comprehensive Agenda for Human Dignity and Sustainable Democracy in Africa . The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2003. Ouguergouz, Fatsah . The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights: A Comprehensive Agenda for Human Rights . The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2003. Udombana, Nsongurua J. “ An African Human Rights Court and an African Union Court: A Needful Duality or a Needless Duplication? ” Brooklyn Journal of...

Limburg Principles on Socioeconomic Rights

Limburg Principles on Socioeconomic Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,268 words

...is, under international law, a violation of the Covenant” (Principle 70). However, the Principles recognize that states have a margin of discretion when taking measures and allocating resources for the realization of the rights and that a lack of available resources or force majeure may adversely affect the capacity of a government to fulfill its obligations (Principle 71). Principle 72 provides a number of examples of what might constitute a violation of the Covenant. These include, inter alia, the failure of a state party to take a required step, such as the...

Bahá’í Faith

Bahá’í Faith   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,274 words

...Two Prophets The Báb was born in Shiraz, in southwest Persia, on 20 October 1819 . During his lifetime many followers of the “Twelver” school of the Shia branch of Islam—the predominant branch in Persia—anticipated the return of the twelfth, or “hidden,” Imam, a messianic figure. In 1844 Mulla Husayn-i-Bushrú’i , a follower of the teachings of Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti , a Twelver Shiite, went to Shiraz, where he believed the twelfth Imam would appear. There, he met the Báb, with whom he had a long conversation at the Báb's home on 22 May 1844 . During that...

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