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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Ecuador

Ecuador   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...The patriot Francisco de Miranda created Ecuador's flag in 1806. The armies of Simón Bolívar, who liberated much of South America, fought under this flag. At the centre is Ecuador's coat of arms, showing a condor over Mount Chimborazo, Ecuador's highest peak at 6267m (20...

Wallis and Futuna

Wallis and Futuna   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
296 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with a few French. The Roman Catholic Church has a strong influence. Most Wallisians make their living from subsistence agriculture, growing taro, yams, bananas, and other crops. The main cash crop is coconuts, grown for copra. They also fish for tuna. Of its population, only around 1,800 are in formal employment, and half of those are in government service. The islands are not self-sufficient and food is a major import. The country relies for survival on French aid. With limited work prospects, many people have emigrated. Some 20,000 are in New...

Grenada

Grenada   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
558 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Equality Index rank: n/a Environmental Performance Indicator rank: 120 out of 180 The country Grenada is a volcanic island with a rugged mountainous interior and an attractive coastline that has many secluded bays and beaches. Most Grenadans are black, while a minority are of mixed race. The country’s fertile soil and abundant rainfall allow a tenth of the population to make a living as small farmers. Apart from growing food crops, they also specialize in nutmeg and cocoa. Agricultural exports (cocoa, and around 20 per cent of the world's...

Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
737 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Islands Basic information Land area: 260 sq. km People: Mixed ancestry 40%, black 20%, white 20%, expatriates 20%. Language: English Religion: Protestant 68%, Roman Catholic 14%, other 8% Government : Overseas territory of the UK Population (2017 estimate): 62,000 Percentage urban: 100% Population estimate for 2035: 74,000 Life expectancy at birth 2014: 83.9 (F), 78.4 (M) Capital city: George Town, 31,000 Currency: Cayman Islands dollar Major exports: financial services, turtle products GDP per head, $PPP...

Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
346 words
Illustration(s):
1

...meet the requirements of Australian regulations. See also Country data table http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/ Norfolk Island Regional Council official site http://www.norfolkonlinenews.com/residents.html Norfolk online news site https://www.radionz.co.nz/tags/Norfolk%20Island Radio New Zealand Norfolk Island online news ...

Guinea

Guinea   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,208 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Despite having much fertile agricultural land, only around a quarter of the available land is cultivated. Most production is for subsistence, leaving a wide food gap that must be met with imports of rice. With the help of international donors, the government has been struggling to increase food production and to diversify into cash crops such as coffee, cotton, and fruits. This has required extensive investment in infrastructure, particularly in roads. Agriculture now accounts for 20 per cent of GDP. Guinea’s fortunes, however, still depend critically...

Monaco

Monaco   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
327 words
Illustration(s):
1

...though landfill and reclamation from the sea have increased the area by 20 per cent over the past fifty years. Monaco is highly dependent on France: and almost half its residents are French citizens attracted in part by the lack of income tax. The economy The primary industry is tourism—four-star and upwards. The casino in the Monte Carlo district is one attraction and the largest employer; the harbour is always packed with luxury yachts. Many banks and insurance companies find this a comfortable location. At the start of this century it was much...

American Samoa

American Samoa   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
498 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Protestant 80%, Roman Catholic 20% Government: Administered by the USA Population (2017 estimate): 56,000 Percentage urban: 87.2% Population estimate for 2035: 58,000 Capital city: Pago Pago, 3,700 Currency: US dollar Major exports: tinned tuna GDP per head, $PPP (2013 estimate): $13,000 The country American Samoa is a US territory in the South Pacific. It consists of three main hilly volcanic islands and two atolls. Most people live on the main island of Tutuila, which also has a US naval base. More than 90 per cent...

British Indian Ocean Territory

British Indian Ocean Territory   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
469 words
Illustration(s):
1

...air and navy base there as well as a satellite tracking station. The airstrip can handle the largest military aircraft and the satellite tracking equipment includes one of the four tracking stations for the Global Positioning System. The initial lease agreement expired at the end of 2016 , but was then renewed for a further 20 years. Part of the arrangement involved the forcible removal all the residents of the Chagos archipelago, and by 1973 around 2,000 residents had been resettled in Mauritius, the Seychelles, and the UK. There are continuing legal disputes...

Latvia

Latvia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,173 words
Illustration(s):
2

...a peak of 20 per cent in 2011 to just under 10 per cent in 2015 , though youth unemployment is significantly higher. The economy Industry in Latvia had been geared to producing industrial and consumer goods, including processed food, for the Soviet Union. After independence, when the country was opened up to foreign competition, many industries such as machine building went into steep decline, but have since revived. By 2009 as a result of a steady process of privatization most production was in private hands. Although agriculture represents a...

Aruba

Aruba   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
471 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Movement. Venezuela became increasingly concerned that its citizens were smuggling gold out of the country through Aruba, and closed all air and sea routes in January 2018 for three months. As the situation in Venezuela worsened, up to 20,000 Venezuelan migrants reached Aruba, and the responsibility for their care led to disputes between Aruba and the Netherlands. In response to perceived support of the Netherlands for the Venezuelan opposition, all air and sea routes were again closed by Venezuela in February 2019. See also Country data table http://www.overheid...

Christmas Island

Christmas Island   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
405 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Christmas Island Basic information Land area: 135 sq. km People: Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10% Language: English Religion: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, other Government: Territory of Australia Population (2015 estimate): 1,530 Capital city: The Settlement Currency: Australian dollar Major exports: phosphates Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, 350 km (200 miles) south of Java, was left largely uninhabited until the discovery of phosphates at the end of the nineteenth century. Most subsequent mining work was done...

Luxembourg

Luxembourg   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
678 words
Illustration(s):
2

...rubber products GDP per head, $PPP (2016): $105,882 Human Development Index rank: 20 out of 188 Gender Equality Index rank: 13 out of 159 Environmental Performance Indicator rank: 20 out of 180 The country The northern one-third of Luxembourg is mountainous, with dense forests. The more fertile part of the country is in the southern two-thirds—the rolling plains of the ‘Bon Pays’. Luxembourg’s people have their own dialect and a strong national identity, but most also speak French and German. They country has amongst the...

New Caledonia

New Caledonia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
638 words
Illustration(s):
2

...2018 , the French government will arrange a November 2018 referendum. Congress failed to act and so in a November 2018 referendum, 56 per cent of the voters rejected independence. Under the terms of the Nouméa Accords, a further vote can take place in 2020 . See also Country data table https://gouv.nc/ Government of New Caledonia official portal (in French) https://dfat.gov.au/geo/new-caledonia/pages/new-caledonia.aspx Australian Government information on New Caledonia https://www.radionz.co.nz/tags/New%20Caledonia Radio New Zealand New Caledonia...

St Vincent & the Grenadines

St Vincent & the Grenadines   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
689 words
Illustration(s):
2

...20 per cent. A small offshore financial sector provides another source of income. Many thousands of companies are registered here, supported by international banks and investment companies. This used to be sustained by strict legislation to preserve secrecy, though this has had to be made more transparent to comply with international regulations. In 2016 , Abu Dhabi provided a loan to enable a geothermal power station to be built, which will enable some electricity to be produced without using imported fuel. Contemporary politics The country is a...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

...five years are malnourished. Education levels are low: around a quarter of children do not enrol for primary education and around 40 per cent of the adult population are illiterate. There are similar problems in health. Health services are poor and nearly a half of the rural population do not have safe sanitation. Particularly disturbing is the slow advance of women. Thus while boys on average can now expect 8.5 years of schooling, girls have only 7 years, and the literacy rate for men is over 20 per cent higher than for women. Women also have fewer...

Croatia

Croatia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,509 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of cereals and other cash crops takes place. Before the war, Croatia was a food exporter but it is now a substantial importer. Croatia’s spectacular Adriatic coastline had long been a major package-tourist attraction—notably the ancient city of Dubrovnik, which took a severe battering from the Yugoslav army in 1991 . Since then tourism has revived, especially from cruise ships. Croatia had nearly 20 million visitors in 2015 , a record number, and tourism contributes around 20 per cent of GDP and 14 per cent of jobs. As in most industrialized countries,...

Cook Islands

Cook Islands   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
419 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Pacific Ocean, discovered by Captain Cook in 1773 . Most Cook Islanders are of mixed Polynesian descent and speak Cook Islands Maori as well as English. More than half are on the island of Rarotonga. Many have also emigrated: there are 60,000 Cook Islanders in New Zealand and 20,000 in Australia. In 2016 over half its population was rated as obese according to the World Health Organization, amongst the highest figures in the world. The economy Around one-fifth of the islanders depend on agriculture. There is also some industry, including the manufacture...

Russia

Russia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...20 per cent of the total population, and even they have majority Russian populations. Russia’s people have endured a series of shocks since the demise of communism, especially during the period of transition leading up to the more stable, if repressive government of Putin since 2000 . Living standards fell, so that by 2008 , 19 per cent lived below the official poverty line; this shrank back to 11 per cent in 2013 , before the slump in oil prices from 2014 brought back hardship as government revenue were badly affected. There has also been a steep...

Macau

Macau   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
557 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Regulations against money laundering and other illegal activities frequently linked to gambling continue to be a challenge to the government. Contemporary politics Following agreement about the return of Hong Kong to Chinese rule in 1984 , Macau’s return to Chinese administration under similar conditions became inevitable. In 1987 , the Chinese and Portuguese governments agreed that Macau would return to China on 20 December 1999 as a Special Administrative Region, in which capitalism would be maintained. Transition to Chinese rule was never as...

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