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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the late 20th century, may have had its first run of performances interrupted by plague. Henslowe ’s ‘Diary’ reports that a play called ‘titus & ondronicus’ was performed by Sussex’s Men at the Rose theatre on 24 January 1594 . The play was entered in the Stationers’ Register on 6 February 1594 , only a few days after the Rose theatre was closed down following an outbreak of plague . Recent editors disagree on the exact date of composition. Verbal parallels in The Troublesome Reign of King John , published in 1591 , and A Knack to Know a Knave ,...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...friend’s constancy, and 117–20 apologize for a lapse in the poet’s own fidelity. Sonnet 126, ‘O thou my lovely boy’—unusually, a poem in six rhymed couplets rather than a sonnet proper—marks a turning point: the last poem addressed to the young man, it offers a final warning to him of his inescapable mortality. The next sonnets, 127–52, are known as the ‘Dark Lady’ group, addressed to or concerned with an unfashionably dark-haired, dark-eyed, and dark-complexioned mistress. For the most part, these poems reproach her: she is a tyrant, black in deeds as well...

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...husband bets 20 crowns that his wife will return most obediently when summoned. Bianca and the Widow refuse to come, but Katherine comes immediately, and at Petruccio’s bidding fetches the other two wives, throws off her hat, and preaches a long homily on wifely obedience, thereby winning him the wager. A delighted Baptista adds another 20,000 crowns to Petruccio’s winnings. (In The Taming of a Shrew , Sly, now asleep, is put back into his own clothes and returned to where the Lord found him: awakened at dawn by a tapster, he says he has had a wonderful...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...no later than 1608 . A manuscript copy of the play, most probably the promptbook used by the King’s Men at the Globe , was entered in the Stationers’ Register by Edward Blount on 20 May 1608 . In the same year, George Wilkins published a novel called The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre , which is clearly based on the play. The Italian ambassador Giorgio Giustinian saw a production of Pericles during his visit to London between January 1606 and November 1608 , and it is referred to as ‘new’ in a pamphlet, Pimlico , of ...

Troilus and Cressida

Troilus and Cressida   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,065 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...frequency between 1679 and 1734 ) before the 20th century. Even Dryden’s version was most praised for its new scenes, notably a quarrel and reconciliation between Troilus and Hector and a rhetorical confrontation between Troilus and Diomedes. The original was first revived in Munich in 1898 (played, by an all-male cast, as a blackly comic skit on Homer) and other German productions followed. The play was at last revived semi-professionally, to an unconvinced London audience, in 1907 , and a similar venture by William Poel in 1912–13 is...

Timon of Athens

Timon of Athens   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,245 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...generally the play has been valued for individual passages rather than as a whole: Karl Marx , for example, was deeply affected by Timon’s moralizing against gold (4.3.25–45), initiating a reading of the play’s vision of capitalist economics later developed by Kenneth Muir . Much discussion of the play has been devoted to explaining its perceived incompetence: around the turn of the 20th century, it became fashionable to attribute the melancholy of the ‘problem plays’ and tragedies to a personal crisis above which Shakespeare finally rose to produce the...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...’s Cleopatra , felt by some to be ‘too English’ (a complaint still often raised against British actresses by critics with a more exotic, Orientalist view of the role). In the later 20th century, many directors tried to solve this problem by scaling down both performances and the entire play: Trevor Nunn ’s much-praised RSC production of 1972 , with Janet Suzman as Cleopatra, used a comparatively simple set, and Peter Brook ’s of 1978 (his last work for the company), with Glenda Jackson as Cleopatra, a stylized setting framed by glass panels. ( Peter...

All’s Well That Ends Well

All’s Well That Ends Well   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,814 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...only one performance, and when revived by Samuel Phelps in 1852 (in a cut form which politely eliminated the bed-trick) it proved equally unpopular. Meanwhile a musical version by Frederick Reynolds ( 1832 ) had equally failed to reconcile playgoers to what now seemed an unacceptably indecent plot-line, and the play was not performed professionally again until Frank Benson cast himself as Paroles in a Stratford revival in 1916 . The play’s unfamiliarity and unpopularity freed 20th-century directors to take unusual liberties with its text, and even...

Cymbeline, King of Britain

Cymbeline, King of Britain   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sons, whom he stole 20 years earlier to avenge his unjust banishment. 3.4 Near Milford, Pisanio is unable to carry out Posthumus’ orders, which he shows to Innogen: outraged, she renounces Posthumus and implores Pisanio to kill her as instructed. Pisanio tells her he is sure Posthumus has been deceived, but means to placate him for the time being by sending a bloodstained piece of clothing, as requested, as evidence that Innogen is dead: meanwhile he advises her to get to Rome by disguising herself as a boy and taking service as a page with Caius Lucius,...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in the part, though some commentators preferred his successor John E. McCullough , who played Coriolanus in a more intellectually superior style in 1878 . Despite some notable revivals at the Old Vic in the 1920s, the play did not enjoy particular prominence in the 20th century until the rise of fascist movements across Europe brought it a renewed topicality. In France in 1934 the Action Française party induced the Comédie-Française to stage a version of the play which treated it as an all-out attack on democracy (stimulating violent demonstrations...

King John

King John   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,371 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...1945 ), and Richard Burton ( 1953 ). The most critically admired production of the later 20th century was undoubtedly that of Deborah Warner for the RSC ( 1988 ). Gregory Doran directed Guy Henry as John in a briskly intelligent, intimate, and moving production in the RSC’s Swan theatre ( 2001 ), the company tackling the play again in 2006 as part of the Complete Works Festival , with Richard McCabe and Joseph Millson as John and the Bastard respectively, in a psychologically probing and politically cynical vision by director Josie Rourke. Maria...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...own invention, though the play draws on a number of literary sources. The most important is Chaucer ’s Knight’s Tale, to which Shakespeare would return, with Fletcher , nearly 20 years later, dramatizing it as The Two Noble Kinsmen . Chaucer’s story provides the basis for Shakespeare’s depiction of Theseus and Hippolyta’s marriage, which it juxtaposes, furthermore, with a rivalry between two men for the same woman, source for the competition between Lysander and Demetrius over Hermia. Shakespeare, however, adds a second woman, Helena, who has earlier been...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...und Frauen , 1839 ), opined that even if Shakespeare had consciously intended Shylock to be a monster his humanity had led him to write a vindication of the Jews. The argument between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...real one, and this in turn has exacerbated a tendency to identify the play solely with its titular hero. Romantic critics, from Hazlitt to W. B. Yeats and beyond, tended to disparage Henry as somehow mechanical, convinced that as a true poet Shakespeare must have preferred his more contemplative protagonists, such as Hamlet and Richard II, to anyone so decisive and successful. Much 20th-century commentary, particularly before 1950 , was interested in relating this play to the design of the Second Tetralogy as a whole, often presenting Henry as...

As You Like It

As You Like It   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,253 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...English ballad-poetry’ ( 1896 ). The 20th century saw a renewed and usually more complicated interest in the play’s dealings with the literary conventions of its time, with scholars reading it not only against Lodge’s Rosalynde (dismissed as ‘worthless’ by George Steevens in 1770 , but studied with increasing respect thereafter) but alongside the versions of pastoral offered by Sidney , Spenser , Greene , and others. Such critics, unusually, tended to concur in seeing the play as simultaneously a celebration and a debunking of the pastoral convention...

All Is True

All Is True   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an uproar by using a modernist aluminium set and Lewis Carroll-influenced costumes based on playing cards (further defying expectations by having the baby doll Elizabeth thrown into the audience in 5.4), and one at Stratford in 1984 , when Howard Davies offered a professedly Brechtian production full of deliberate anachronisms associating Henry’s regime with Stalin’s. The play’s last major 20th-century revival, though, directed by Greg Doran for the RSC at the Swan in 1997 , returned opulently to Tudor dress, with Jane Lapotaire as a traditionally...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...personification of republican values, a Hamlet-like contemplative idealist too naive for public life, or a zealot committed to bloodless theories at the expense of flesh and blood. In the earlier 20th century the play’s structural kinship with two plays about regicide, Richard III and, especially, Macbeth , was frequently noted. Since the Second World War Julius Caesar has enjoyed the attention of feminist critics interested in Portia’s wound and the play’s general relegation of women to the margins of a political world dominated by intense...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...films were produced early in the 20th century, F. R. Benson ’s ( 1911 ) recording his stage production, while Frederick B. Warde acted the role in a highly spectacular American cinematic adaptation ( 1912 ) which included the arrival of a ship bringing the forces under the Earl of Richmond. No significant sound version appeared until in 1955 Laurence Olivier directed his third Shakespeare film, taking the role of Richard himself. Many of his established team worked with him, notably William Walton , whose music strikes a note of solemnity, reminding the...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...play fell from favour, though Samuel Phelps was a notable Sir John in 1847 and, at Drury Lane, in 1864 , in a production otherwise best remembered for its spectacular pictorial recreation of the battle of Shrewsbury. In the 20th century the play gradually regained some measure of its earlier popularity, though unlike Richard III it has never attracted very much interest outside the nation whose history it dramatizes, Sir John seeming as inexplicably English a joke as Mr Punch. Barry Jackson staged a full text of 1 Henry IV in 1913 , and revived...

The Two Gentlemen of Verona

The Two Gentlemen of Verona   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,682 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and removing Valentine’s renunciation of Silvia to Proteus (a cut often repeated over the ensuing years as the romantic celebration of male friendship over love grew ever less usual in the culture at large). The play was revived briefly at Covent Garden in 1784 , and by J. P. Kemble in 1790 and 1808 , but its only really popular British production before the mid-20th century was in 1821 , when Frederick Reynolds initiated a recurrent strand in its stage history by drastically adapting it as a musical . In common with subsequent 19th-century...

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