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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Paralipsis

Paralipsis   Reference library

D. Veraldi and S. Cushman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...not be confused with— analepsis (a flashback) and prolepsis (a flash-forward). James Phelan identifies some examples of paralipsis as paradoxical (e.g., when a narrator unselfconsciously appears to be as naïve as his or her narrated self). Alison Case suggests that Phelan’s vision of paralipsis is a convention of 20th-c. fiction rather than a perennial aesthetic. Bibliography Rhetores Graeci , ed. C. Walz , 9 vols. (1832–36) ; S. Usher , “ Occultatio in Cicero’s Speeches,” AJP 86, no. 2 (April 1965) ; H. A. Kelly , “ Occupatio as Negative...

Ghose, Zulfikar

Ghose, Zulfikar (1935–)   Reference library

Martin Seymour-Smith

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Hobsbaum said that Ghose's ‘precision of detail is a pattern about a void’. But students of 1960s so-called ‘syllabics’ and of predominantly intellectual poetry, such as was most notably and polemically practised by the Romanian mathematician Ion Barbu (called by him ‘passion on ice’), would find his work rewarding. See his autobiography, Confessions of a Native Alien (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965) , In the Ring of Pure Light: Lectures on Language and Literature ( 2011 ), and 50 Poems: 30 Selected 20 New ( 2010 ), both published in Pakistan by Oxford...

Riley, John

Riley, John (1937–78)   Reference library

Roger Garfitt

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...1980 ) contains poetry, prose, and translations. Selected Poems ( 1995 ) traces his development as a poet and he is represented as a translator in What I Own: Versions of Hölderlin and Mandelshtam ( 1998 —both Carcanet). Critical essays appear in a memorial volume, For John Riley (Grosseteste, 1979 ), and in Poetry Review , 71:1 ( 1981 ). There is a useful discussion of ‘Czargrad’ by Douglas * Oliver in PN Review , 20 ( 1981 ). Roger Garfitt rg ...

Wickham, Anna

Wickham, Anna (1884–1947)   Reference library

Carol Rumens

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Anna ( 1884–1947 ) Born in 1884 in Wimbledon, where her father kept a music shop. She was taken to Queensland, Australia, as a small child, and returned to England at the age of 20 to train as a singer. An unhappy marriage frustrated this ambition, and she increasingly turned to poetry. Her first poems were printed by Harold and Alida Monro of the Poetry Bookshop , and she went on to produce many collections, beginning with the privately printed Songs of John Oland ( 1911 ), under the pseudonym John Oland . Despite her literary successes, Anna...

Enslin, Theodore

Enslin, Theodore (1925–2011)   Reference library

Edward Foster

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...volumes of Forms (Elizabeth Press, 1970–4 ) and two volumes of Ranger (North Atlantic, 1978 , 1980) deserve particular notice. A collection of essays on Enslin was edited by John Taggart and published in Truck , 20 ( 1978 ). The National Poetry Foundation published a large selected poems, Then and Now , in 1999 . See also Re-Sounding: Selected Later Poems (Talisman House, 1999). His last book, I, Benjamin , was a ‘quasi-autobiographical’ novella on the life of the artist (McPherson, 2010). Edward Foster...

Phalaecean

Phalaecean   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and R. A. Swanson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... In classical prosody , a hendecasyllabic line that has the pattern x x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – ᴗ – x, so called after the Gr. poet Phalaikos ( 4th c. bce ?). It is used at times by Sophocles ( Philoctetes 136, 151) and Aristophanes ( Ecclesiazusae 942 ff.); the Alexandrian poets employed it for whole poems, e.g., Theokritos ( Epode 20), Phalaikos ( Anthologia Palatina 13.6). In Lat., it is attempted by Laevius and Varro but finds its deepest roots in Catullus, e.g., Ădēste ēndĕcăsyllăbī, quŏt ēstīs. Forty of his 113 extant poems are in hendecasyllables ,...

Neo-Gongorism

Neo-Gongorism   Reference library

A. W. Phillips and K. N. March

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... A term used to designate a brief but significant 20th-c. Sp. poetic trend stemming from a revival of the 17th-c. baroque poet Luis de Góngora ( 1561–1627 ) on the tricentennial of his death. Góngora’s style, characterized by brilliant if extravagant metaphors and convoluted or Latinate syntax, created a new interest in the formal possibilities of lang. that led to the publication of mod. eds. of his work and important stylistic studies of his poetry. Among contributors to this vogue were Dámaso Alonso , Gerardo Diego , and José Maria de...

Poetry Reading

Poetry Reading   Reference library

P. Middleton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,459 words

...Reading . Although oral poetry performance is coextensive with the hist. of poetry, the poetry reading is a relatively recent type of such performance, a cultural category of a discrete live event at which an author reads aloud from a written text of his or her own poetry to a public audience. Text-based performance by the author has become central to mod. poetry trads. since the middle of the 20th c. and performs a number of functions: it provides publicity and financial support for the careers of poets; it promotes the dissemination of poetry in...

Pastiche

Pastiche   Reference library

C. Bowen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...as the discursive modes of the poem, is a replication of a mediated replication. In Perloff’s introductory description of Gunslinger , Dorn’s work provides a “poetic Sourcebook on postmodern discourses—the discourses of atomic science and cybernetics, pop song and media-speak, Heideggerianism and high finance”; further, Gunslinger is a definitive late 20th-c. “para-poem … with its amalgam of ‘theory’ and lyric, of prose narrative and sound-text, and especially of citation embedded in or superimposed on the speech of a particular self.” Pastiche here,...

Neobaroque

Neobaroque   Reference library

J. Sefamí

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... A style of poetry common in the late 20th c. in Latin America, in which artifice , figuration , and a consciousness of textuality are highly developed, often with explicit or covert reference to the baroque poetry of the early mod. period. The term neobarroco as applied to Latin Am. lit. was arguably coined by the Brazilian poet Haroldo de Campos ( 1929–2003 ), writing about Umberto Eco’s opera aperta (open work), to refer to the unconventional nature of contemp. writing. As Campos was to insist on several occasions, Latin Am. cultures share a...

Gonzales, Rodolfo ‘Corky’

Gonzales, Rodolfo ‘Corky’ (1928–2005)   Reference library

A. Robert Lee

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...each stage in the Amerindian-Spanish history of los chicanos —through, in turn, Mexican Independence ( 1821 ), the ceding of much of northern Mexico to the United States ( 1848 ), the Mexican revolution ( 1910–20 ), and, finally, the modern ‘border’ Mexico-America of the American south-west. As the persona for his community, Joaquín ends with a near Whitmanesque flourish against poverty and exploitation: ‘La Raza! | Mejicano! | Español! | Latino! | Hispano! | Chicano! | or whatever I call myself, | look the same | I cry | and | sing the same.’ The complete...

New Norse

New Norse   Reference library

S. Lyngstad and D. Krouk

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...from ON. Aasen wanted to give his country a literary lang. less influenced by Danish, and he demonstrated the viability of landsmaal , as it was called at the time, by translating foreign poetry and writing his own literary works of national romanticism in various genres. The first important poet to write in Nynorsk was Aasmund Vinje ( 1818–70 ), who established the combination of cosmopolitan intellectual engagement and regional consciousness that can be seen in many later Nynorsk writers. Around the turn of the 20th c., Arne Garborg ( 1851–1924 ) and ...

Martian Poetry

Martian Poetry   Reference library

Michael Hulse

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Poetry Craig * Raine 's poem ‘A Martian Sends a Postcard Home’ prompted James * Fenton , to hail the new ‘Martian School’ ( New Statesman , 20 Oct. 1978). Raine's poem is strikingly inventive. Misunderstanding the ignition and rear-view mirror in a car, Raine's alien declares that ‘a key is turned to free the world | for movement, so quick there is a film | to watch for anything missed’. Riddling wit of this kind was partly inspired by William Golding's novel The Inheritors (according to Raine himself, quoted in The Observer , 2 Mar. 1980 ) and...

Wylie, Elinor (Morton Hoyt)

Wylie, Elinor (Morton Hoyt) (1885–1928)   Reference library

Rachel Hadas

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(Morton Hoyt) ( 1885–1928 ) Born in New Jersey and grew up in Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Married at 20 to socialite Philip Hichborn , she eloped five years later with Horace Wylie , with whom she lived, partly in England, from 1911 to 1915 . Divorced from Wylie in 1923 , she married William Rose Benét , a man of letters and brother of the poet Stephen Vincent Benét . She lived in Greenwich Village from 1922 until her death from a stroke in 1928 . Elinor Wylie ’s first book of poems was privately printed in London in 1912 and was followed...

Read, Sir Herbert (Edward)

Read, Sir Herbert (Edward) (1893–1968)   Reference library

Martin Seymour-Smith and Julian Symons

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...did not come as easily or as naturally to him in poetry as in criticism. As a result of meeting * Pound and others while a serving soldier, he began to write in the manner of the * Imagists ( Songs of Chaos , Mathews, 1915 ). But Robert * Bridges always seemed as strong an influence as any other poet—and this he acknowledged. He was closely connected with the magazine Arts and Letters ( 1917–20 ), and contributed to No. 3 an article offering ‘definitions towards a modern theory of poetry’ that made cautious moves in the direction of free verse,...

Priamel

Priamel   Reference library

W. H. Race and C. Doak

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...discuss the use of the priamel in mod. lit. Holzinger and Ramajo Caño trace the devel. of the priamel in Sp. Golden Age poetry. Race ( 2000 ) explores the use of the priamel in the work of two 20th-c. Am. poets, Richard Wilbur and Raymond Carver ; a further study of Carver’s use of the priamel is Kleppe. Other examples can be found in Shakespeare (sonnet 91), Charles Baudelaire (“Au Lecteur”), W. B. Yeats (“An Irish Airman Foresees his Death”), and W. H. Auden (“Law Like Love”). Bibliography F. G. Bergmann , La Priamèle dans les différentes...

Wallace-Crabbe, Chris(topher)

Wallace-Crabbe, Chris(topher) (1934–)   Reference library

Jennifer Strauss

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Emeritus in the Australian Centre at Melbourne University. Periods in America include a Harkness fellowship ( 1965–7 ) and a visiting professorship of Australian Studies at Harvard ( 1987–8 ). His early advocacy of American poets ( Robert * Lowell , Wallace * Stevens ) demonstrated the sharp eye for shifts in poetic preoccupations which has been a feature of critical work such as his influential essay ‘The Habit of Irony: Australian Poets of the Fifties,’ in Meanjin , 20 ( 1961 ); Melbourne or the Bush (Angus & Robertson, 1974 ), which examines...

Paradox

Paradox   Reference library

E. H. Behler

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...a controlled work of art, and the emotional state should be left to the spectator. In the romantic period, Friedrich Schlegel ( Fragments , 1797 ) called the paradox a basic form of human experience and linked it closely with poetry and irony . Thomas De Quincey in his Autobiographical Sketches ( 1834–53 ) argued that the paradox is a vital element in poetry, reflecting the paradoxical nature of the world that poetry imitates. Friedrich Nietzschemade paradox a key term of human experience and of his own literary expression. In the lit. of the 20th...

Zaturenska, Marya

Zaturenska, Marya (1902–82)   Reference library

Robert S. Phillips

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Award in 1922 , when she was 20. She graduated from the University of Wisconsin Library School in 1925 . That same year she married the poet and critic Horace * Gregory , of a patrician Milwaukee family. They later collaborated on anthologies and A History of American Poetry , 1900–40 (New York, 1946 ). Threshold and Hearth , her first collection, appeared in 1934 . It received the Shelley Memorial Award. But it was her second book, Cold Morning Sky , which put her on the literary map. Published in 1937 —a year which saw new collections by *...

Metrici and Rhythmici

Metrici and Rhythmici   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...into claims that quantitative verse could be written in the Eur. vernaculars ( see classical meters in modern languages )—a vestige of the lingering authority of Lat., which persisted until the emergence of cl. philology in the 19th c.; and in mod. times, it is revived in the “musical” theories of prosody of Joshua Steele (18th c.), Sidney Lanier (19th c.), Andreas Heusler and John C. Pope (20th c., for Ger. and OE), and a host of epigones, as well as in other temporal theories not strictly musical (e.g., T. S. Omond , G. R. Stewart , Derek...

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