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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Praeteritio

Praeteritio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
121 words

... ( The Arte of English Poesie , 1589 , p. 232) “the Passager,” is a seemingly hurried reference to material under the pretense of sparing the listener tedious details. This reluctance can be motivated by the speaker's wish to pass quickly over inconvenient circumstances of his case, as when in Tristram Shandy ( 1760–1767 ), Sterne's narrator drops several subjects and playfully leaves a character “to recover, and get home from Marseilles as he can” (6.20). Praeteritio is a strategy of ironic dissimulation, disingenuously enumerating details that...

Simile

Simile   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
239 words

...the New Testament, as in Mt . 20.1: “For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder.” The simile can be used as a form of rhetorical amplification, as is demonstrated by the “epic simile” of Homer, as well as the epideictic similes in the Bible's Song of Solomon . The simile is an isosememe that denotes an object or an idea through more than one lexical item; transferred to a textual level, it assumes the nature of a parable and changes into an isotexteme. A deletion of its linguistic markers results in a transformation to either...

Hebrew rhetoric

Hebrew rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,596 words

...by the prophet, but left unexpressed, a great enthymeme emerges [ See Enthymeme .]: [Deuteronomy: An Israel in violation of the covenant will be punished] The prophets: Israel has violated the covenant Israel will therefore be punished. Hebrew rhetoric appeals only occasionally to the emotions ( pathos ), as, for example, in the preaching of Hosea (11.1–4, 8–9) and Jeremiah (3.19–20; 31.15–20). Ēthos appeals are similarly rare, seen occasionally in Jeremiah's confessions to Yahweh ( Jer . 8.6; 12.3; 18.20), but not usual in public discourse. [ See ...

Color

Color   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,511 words

....] Latro likewise says that over the full course of a speech even difficult, harsh colores can win acceptance ( Cont . 10 pr. 15, cf. 7.1.20; Inst . 4.2.94). “Mixing” colores —using more than one in a given speech—is tricky: when speaking of yourself you should use only one (i.e., choose a single back story and consistently describe your motivations in that light), but when speculating on someone else's motivations you can propose several alternative stories ( Inst . 4.2.90; Cont . 4.6). A well-developed color , then, appears to partake of the...

Identification

Identification   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,881 words

...263–275. New York, 1973. Burke, Kenneth . A Grammar of Motives . Berkeley, 1969. First published 1945. Burke, Kenneth . A Rhetoric of Motives . Berkeley, 1969. First published 1950. Burke, Kenneth . “ Definition of Man. ” Hudson Review 16 (1963–1964), pp. 491–514. Burke, Kenneth . The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action . 3d ed. Berkeley, 1973. First published 1941. Burke, Kenneth . “ The New Criticism. ” American Scholar 20 (1954), pp. 86–104. Heath, Robert L. Realism and Relativism: A Perspective on Kenneth Burke . Macon, Ga.,...

Credibility

Credibility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,660 words

...the appropriate kind of speech to each of them (271a–273e). Here, Plato's focus is on the psychological makeup of the audience for which the orator has to compose a matching speech; however, Plato is not concerned with the qualities of the speaker. Aristotle (384–322 bce ). His Rhetoric begins with very critical remarks about the preoccupation of orators and writers of rhetorical handbooks with a rhetorical strategy that relies mostly on the speaker's ability to influence the audience's emotions (1.1.1354b20). In his own rhetorical theory, he limits the role...

Controversia and Suasoria

Controversia and Suasoria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,407 words

...changes to suasoria once a name or particular occasion is added; whether Cato should marry is thus a suasoria . Aristotle's query about obeying a father became hackneyed (Seneca 2.1.20 and Declamationes minores 257; Aulus Gellius , second century ce , connects this thesis to philosophical schools; cf. Musonius Rufus 16). The formal relationship is more interesting than the ancient theorists allow, driven as they were by a desire to isolate a single defining difference, for the ethical thesis turns on a paradox (should a father counseling evil be...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...“forensic”) rhetoric was written to be delivered in the law courts and sought to convince a jury of the litigant's innocence or guilt regarding a past action (cf. Rhetoric 1358b1–20). [ See Deliberative genre ; and Forensic genre .] The third genre, epideictic (sometimes called “demonstrative”), however, was without a distinct or fixed setting; it mostly concerned the present, but might also invoke the past and the future ( Rhetoric 1358b18–20); and this in turn left its audience less clearly defined. Aristotle refers to the recipient of this speech...

Kairos

Kairos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...say it, the woof. The metaphor of weaving reveals a unique relation between speech and kairos . Rhetoric makes demands on the occasion and yet is bound to “present necessities” (see Rhetoric 1365a.20; Topics 117a.26–117b.2). Kairos stresses what Wichelns ( 1925 , p. 212) described as rhetoric's “bondage to the occasion and the audience,” a characteristic that distinguishes rhetoric from poetry. This use of kairos as the right time not only duplicates the meaning of rhetoric itself but also designates a technique of rhetoric. Conceptually, kairos ...

Secular piety

Secular piety   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,076 words

...of Motives . Burke explains that “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” (p. 20). Just as decorum in traditional rhetoric blends contradictions, so Burke's identification allows people, by assuming that interests are joined, to stress unity in what might otherwise be perceived as a divisive situation or idea. Through secular piety, people can frame their...

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,767 words

...libri xii .” In Rhetorica Movet. Studies in Historical and Modern Rhetoric in Honour of Heinrich F. Plett . Edited by Peter L. Oesterreich and Thomas O. Sloane , pp. 3–24. Leiden, 1999. Spencer, John R. “ Ut rhetorica pictura. A Study of Quattrocento Theory of Painting. ” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 20 (1957), pp. 26–44. — Bernhard F....

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,344 words

...George P. Hypertext 2.0 . Baltimore, 1997. As the definitive work on hypertext to date, this book describes the development, nature, and applications of hypertext, primarily in the period just prior to its use on the World Wide Web. Applying the critical theories of Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Barthes, Lyotard, and others, Landow explains how the phenomenon of hypertext changes how we write, read, think, and experience literature. One can only wish that Landow's update in this book of his earlier Hypertext had provided a more thorough account of how...

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...the fourth century bce , enunciates a temporal kairotic ideal (2.20) as a general guide for human conduct. Alcidamas , a student of Gorgias, writes of rhetorical kairos primarily in its temporal sense. By contrast, his contemporary Isocrates ( 436–338 bce ), a student of both Gorgias and Prodicus, conceived of kairos in oratory as proper proportion and “conformity with initially decided subject matter and presentation” ( O'Sullivan , 1992 , p. 93). Doubtless this reflects his work as a logographer rather than a deliverer of oral/extemporaneous...

Contingency and Probability

Contingency and Probability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,817 words

... happens, for that equates it with sheer chance. Eikos possesses a note a stability and regularity which is intrinsic to the nature of the thing which is the ground for the eikos proposition derived from that nature. A stabilized, but contingent (i.e., not necessary), fact can be known ( Metaphysics 1027a20–21), and it can even be used in a demonstrative syllogism ( Analytica priora 32b20 ff.). Obviously eikos is something relatively stabilized and knowable ( Analytica priora 70a4 ff.) and, as such, offers ground for reasonable inference to further...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...in televised political exchanges. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . 2d ed. Baltimore, 1977. Argues that the linear arrangement of individual literary texts will be replaced by continuous webs of text. Larsen, Richard . “ Toward a Linear Rhetoric of the Essay. ” College Composition and Communication 22 (1971), pp. 140–146. An application of speech act theory to arrangement, seeing a text as a sequence of acts to achieve a goal. McLuhan, Marshall . The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of...

History

History   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,099 words

...c.200–118 bce ), who described the rise of Roman imperialism in a work of many volumes, criticized other historians for inventing speeches while practicing similar invention himself (e.g., 12.25a–25b and 36.1). Diodorus Siculus , a Greek historian who was roughly contemporary with Sallust, complained about the number and length of the speeches that some historians inserted into their works, saying that they cause too great an interruption of the narrative (20.1.1–2.3). The classic example of a speechifying historian is Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote in...

Stasis

Stasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,622 words

...” Philologus 108 (1964), pp. 80–101. Braet, Antoine C. “ Variationen zur Statuslehre von Hermagoras bei Cicero. ” Rhetorica 7 (1989), pp. 239–259. Braet, Antoine . “ The Classical Doctrine of Status and the Rhetorical Theory of Argumentation. ” Philosophy and Rhetoric 20 (1987), pp. 79–93. Braet, Antoine . De klassieke statusleer in modern perspectief. Een historisch-systematische bijdrage tot de argumentatieleer . Groningen, The Netherlands, 1984. Calboli Montefusco, Lucia . La dottrina degli “status” nella retorica greca e romana . Hildesheim,...

Homiletics

Homiletics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,354 words

...Influential modern treatment with extensive bibliography. Fant, C. E., Jr. and W. M. Pinson, Jr. 20 Centuries of Great Preaching: An Encyclopedia of Preaching . 13 vols. Waco, Tex., 1971. Hirst, Russel . “ Ethos and the Conservative Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Protestant Homiletics.” In Ethos: New Essays in Rhetorical and Critical Theory , edited by James S. Baumlin and Tita French Baumlin , pp. 293–318. Dallas, Tex., 1994. Kennedy, George A. Classical Rhetoric and its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times . 2d ed.,...

Reception theory

Reception theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,991 words

...to construct a probable horizon of expectation. After establishing the horizon of expectation, the critic can then proceed to determine the artistic merit of a given work by measuring the distance between the work and the horizon. Jauss employs a fundamentally deviationist model: the aesthetic value of a text is seen as a function of its departure from a given norm. If the expectations of a reader are not “disappointed” or violated, then the text will approach the culinary; if, on the other hand, it breaks through the horizon, then it will be a work of high...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...as a problem worth addressing ( Vatz , 1971 ). To facilitate conjoined action, people use rhetoric to promote identification by symbolically naming and framing shared experience in ways that coach shared attitudes and concerted action. Though indeterminate in meaning, experience simultaneously shapes and limits the range of credible symbol use. Selecting, reflecting, and deflecting ambiguous experiential aspects using symbols inevitably communicates attitudes or motives ( Burke , Language , 1966 , p. 45, Philosophy , 1973 , pp. 1, 20). Consistent...

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