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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

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An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Satan, Sin and Death , for his own enterprise. The Milton Gallery opened on 20 May 1799 with an exhibition of 40 works. Admission was fixed at one shilling and a catalogue providing the relevant portions of text priced at sixpence. In the first month the Gallery realized a disappointing sum of £117—the receipts from roughly 1,600 visitors if one conservatively estimates that each purchased a catalogue. The Milton Gallery closed after two seasons. Another commercial venue in which a portion of the public could view works of art—especially the Dutch, Flemish,...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...living in urban areas. In the space of just over a century Britain was transformed from a predominantly rural and small-town society to an urban one. By 1851 there were sixty-three towns in England and Wales each with over 20,000 inhabitants: in 1801 there had been only fifteen such towns. Moreover, the balance had shifted decisively away from London, the most dynamic urban centre of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The capital continued to grow, but after 1801 it took a declining share of a swelling urban population as the highest rates of...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...immediately create unease, especially when the work, in the case of the Britannica , contained long articles (20–110 pages) on subjects such as astronomy, *botany , chemistry, mechanics, and optics. Indeed, the entries on ‘natural philosophy’ refer the reader to these articles on the various sciences. Hence the contemporary encyclopedias do not offer a simple account of the meaning of ‘natural philosophy’, but they do provide a clue—though a standard term for the study of nature, it was one already under stress by 1765 . This reading is supported by the...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., a London printseller named A. C. de Poggi published an elegant engraving by Johann Heinrich Ramberg and Pietro Martini which depicted that year's *Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House, crowded with people and paintings. By this date the Academy, set up in 1768 , had already become Britain's most powerful institution of the visual arts [ see *viewing, 20 ]. As well as providing its forty full and twenty associate members with a prestigious institutional base, it also functioned as a school for a new generation of British painters, offering a...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of revolution in Britain during this period. There were a number of occasions when economic distress, industrial disorder, and popular radicalism might have led to armed *insurrection or even revolution. The Luddite industrial disorder of 1811–13 , the widespread distress and radical protests of 1816–20 , and the agrarian revolt, industrial protests, and political riots of 1830–1 might all have sparked off an insurrection if the ruling authorities had lost their nerve or had reacted in a different way. Revolutionary conspirators did exist and did...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thought to have been used as materials for sermons. Warton too dealt with the ‘Gesta’ in an appendix, though more decorously. A democratic ‘Citizen Shakespeare’ indeed made real headway in the 1790s, the decade of the *Boydell Shakespeare Gallery, a generous commercial *viewing [20] venture to give the public a worthy illustrated version of the national poet. With Steevens once more in charge of the text, the overall impact of the unfinished but widely dispersed project, abandoned in 1802 , was already Doucean, just as Douce's disaggregated...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...throughout the country. In 1803–4 something like 20 per cent of the adult male populations of the rural counties and 35 per cent of the more industrial and urban counties were enlisted in the volunteers. The result was a country in arms, with a substantial proportion of the British male public holding weapons, something which Pitt had refused to countenance in the winter of 1792–3 . Women also were mobilized, in the buying and sending of uniforms for the troops, in the making of flags and banners for the volunteers, and in the raising of public...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of cities to a population of 20,000. Owen's communities were to have only a few thousand inhabitants, and thus, he hoped, the sense of immediacy and intimacy of a village could be preserved. His communitarianism was thus chiefly rooted, like the agrarian ideals of Spence, William *Cobbett , and the great *Chartist leader Feargus O'Connor ( 1794–1855 ), in a pre-industrial past in which most of the population thrived on the land rather than festered in the wen of demonic cities. The rural ideal in early socialism is typified in one of the better-known...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The ending of the original monopoly system of supply, and the opening of the slave trade to competition (though within the restrictions of contemporary *mercantilist ideals), led to a rush of slavers, investors, and associated British industries eager to satisfy the slave-owners's needs. In the first half of the eighteenth century, British slavers delivered some 20,000 Africans each year. For the rest of the century the figures rose to between 35,000 and 40,000 annually. Between the end of the Royal African Company's slave trading monopoly in 1698 and...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...‘piano mania’ had scarcely begun to affect the mass of people, as it would a generation later [ see London *keyboards ]. Most aspects of musical life which we loosely associate with nineteenth-century Britain were similarly incipient or underdeveloped. Amateur choral societies, which began to flourish in most towns of 20,000 people or more by mid-century, were in 1830 thin on the ground and predominantly male: the Concert of Ancient Music, for example, still had a professional choir with boy trebles. Similarly the entirely male brass band...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of printmakers were, therefore, dominated by unstable hierarchies. Printmaking had itself a place, though a low one, within the hierarchy of the visual arts [ see *viewing, 20 ]. With the foundation of the *Royal Academy in 1768 , line-engravers hoped that they would achieve recognition and be allowed full membership within this self-proclaimed professional élite. This was denied to them on the grounds that they were ‘mechanics’ and not practitioners of a liberal art—a rejection greeted by strong protest at the time and resulting in long-standing resentment....

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Sue, hurry to a fortune-teller in order to discover their prospective successes or failures in love. Concern with identifying a future husband was one of the most common features of both fortune-telling and chap-book literature. The prominence of the topic of marriage no doubt reflects the importance of courtship in the lives of the readers, and of marriage as the one sure means to economic survival for many. The average age of marriage for the majority of the lower orders in most of Britain (excluding Ireland) was quite late, around the mid-20s, and the...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it, for all is yours’, a passage from the book of Genesis which received cheers whenever quoted. The dignity of labour was underlined not only by the fact that Christ had come to earth as a working man but also by a theology which posited a special relationship between God and the working classes. After Peterloo, a Halifax reformer had insisted in the Manchester Observer ( 20 November 1819 ) that ‘the Voice of the People is the Voice of God’ and that the ‘common people constitute the bulk and strength of the Kingdom’. By 1839 a more precise idea had...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...this discourse was closely circumscribed within the sphere of architect-authored and often self-published books, builders' manuals, the *Royal Academy , and a small group of élite practitioners, patrons, and connoisseurs. During the following decades a middle-class, commercial cultural market revolutionized architectural media. New art periodicals like Elmes 's Annals of the Fine Arts ( 1816–20 ) and the Library of the Fine Arts ( 1831–2 ) published on architecture, as did more general magazines like the Quarterly Review , the Edinburgh Review , the...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...attractions of shopping and commercialized entertainments such as balls, *masquerades , and *concerts drew women irresistibly out of the home into the newly ordered urban spaces, such as *pleasure gardens , *theatres [24] , and museums [ see *music, 26 and *viewing, 20 ]. Assemblies had begun to meet regularly in the earliest resort towns before 1700 , and soon weekly assemblies—for cards, dancing, and conversation—were being held in London and throughout the network of provincial towns. Here were public nodal points for women, debating...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...said to have attended the Leeds ‘military festival’ in 1795 ; in Wiltshire 20,000 came to see colours presented to the local yeomanry regiment in 1798 . The sheer volume of counter-invasion propaganda, most of it directed at the lower orders, itself indicates the strength of the drive for mass mobilization. Moreover, the language and imagery of these broadsides were those of ‘total’ war; Napoleon was depicted as a tyrant who would consign the population to slavery, and his army as a raping, murdering, plundering horde. It is much more difficult to determine...

Mary Brunton

Mary Brunton  

née(1778–1818) British novelistSelf-Control (1811) FictionDiscipline (1814) FictionEmmeline (1819) FictionSelf-Control (1811) FictionDiscipline (1814) FictionEmmeline (1819) Fiction
Publishing

Publishing  

The activity of mass producing and disseminating information either via the medium of print, or electronically on the internet.
Wilkes, John

Wilkes, John (1725–1797)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
931 words

...not merely as a sound measure of the internal administration of a country, but as a great commercial principle.” Typically, the History was to be a “votive offering” to the gentlemen, clergy, and freeholders of the county of Middlesex. [See also Censorship ; and Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes , subentry on Great Britain .] Maier, Pauline . John Wilkes and American Disillusionment with Britain . William and Mary Quarterly 20 (1963), 373–395. Rudé, George . Wilkes and Liberty . Oxford, 1962. Thomas, Peter D. G. John Wilkes. A Friend to...

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von (1741–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
700 words

...Gottlieb von Hippel: Eine zentrale Persönlichkeit der Königsberger Geistesgeschichte. Biographie und Bibliographie . Lüneburg, 1987. A careful biography based on the archival sources available to the West before the opening of the archives in Eastern Europe. Lindemann-Stark, Anke , and Joseph Kohnen . Zwischen Vergessen und Wiederentdecken. Bibliographie zu Theodor Gottlieb v. Hippel . Das achtzehnte Jahrhundert 20.2 (1996), 197–220. The most up-to-date critical bibliography; includes primary sources. Isabel V....

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