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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

A20

A20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...A20 A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NF κ ‎B activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNF α ‎. It is a dual function enzyme with deubiquitinating and ubiquitin ligase activity that triggers degradation of RIP ( receptor interacting protein kinase ) an essential mediator of the TNF receptor-1 signalling...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a The History of the Book in Britain, c .1475–1800 Andrew Murphy 1 Origins 2 The Stationers’ Company 3 Beyond London 4 MS circulation and playbooks 5 Religious publishing 6 Copyright and control 7 Conclusion 1 Origins The history of the book in Britain begins, in fact, on the Continent. In 1471 , the Kent-born merchant *Caxton travelled from Bruges to Cologne, where he formed a partnership with the printer and *punchcutter Johannes Veldener . Having mastered the art of printing, Caxton returned to Bruges in the following year, probably accompanied...

A20

A20  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function enzyme with ...
20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a drug habit’ (Leavis, 19). The anxieties displayed by some in the 19 th century about the subversive dangers of a newly literate audience developed in the 20 th century into fears about the deterioration of literary quality in a democratized marketplace. The ambivalence of the book trade, caught between the demands of capitalism and those of culture, would continue to cause consternation throughout the 20 th century. Geoffrey *Faber , publisher of high-modernist authors including Eliot and Pound at his eponymous company, articulated his disdain for a...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Among a large body of other potentially useful material in local record offices, the family and local historian will find indexes of Second World War incidents which can be used to build up a picture of wartime living conditions, alongside local authority civil defence documents and a plethora of souvenirs in local museums, etc. The 20th‐century central government system has also resulted in a large amount of material suitable for local studies, other than those discussed in more detail above. The Home Office records at The National Archives contain a great...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... *calendars manifest a strong Indian influence. For example, the Batak possess a chronological system imbued with Sanskrit-derived terminology that is used to find auspicious moments. Regional versions of the octaval calendar, a rather simple system based on an eight-year cycle, have enjoyed great popularity among the Muslim communities of maritime Southeast Asia for ages, but nowadays outside Java its workings are forgotten. The modernization process which forcefully set in around the turn of the 20 th century has promoted a globalization of...

Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the late 20th century, may have had its first run of performances interrupted by plague. Henslowe ’s ‘Diary’ reports that a play called ‘titus & ondronicus’ was performed by Sussex’s Men at the Rose theatre on 24 January 1594 . The play was entered in the Stationers’ Register on 6 February 1594 , only a few days after the Rose theatre was closed down following an outbreak of plague . Recent editors disagree on the exact date of composition. Verbal parallels in The Troublesome Reign of King John , published in 1591 , and A Knack to Know a Knave ,...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...2 Dating systems The traditional Vietnamese calendar followed the Chinese model. Years were recorded using a method of cyclical characters and year designations, marking the divisions into different periods or eras of a ruler’s reign. The years, in turn, were divided into twelve lunar months of 29 or 30 days. Over a period of nineteen years, seven intercalary months were added in order to bring the lunar cycle into accord with the solar cycle. In the 20 th century, the lunar calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar and Christian Era (or Common Era) for...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...century are *Slatkine and *Droz , both based in Geneva, founded in 1918 and 1924 , respectively. In the mid-20 th century, Switzerland became a centre for high-quality colour book production thanks to publishers such as C. J. Bucher , Conzett & Huber, and *Skira . With regards to book preservation, a number of public or private libraries today house important collections, notably the chief university libraries, the Public Library of the University of *Basel , the City and University Library of *Berne , the Cantonal and University Library of Fribourg,...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a book. In Hamlet , the book of memory becomes the symbol of a person’s mortality; Macbeth abounds with metaphors of the book as the repository of time and a figure for death. At iconic moments in the history of the 20 th century, the power of the book as symbolic object has been especially apparent. In 1933 , the Nazis infamously burned ‘degenerate’ books in Berlin’s Opernplatz. Conversely, in China during the Cultural Revolution, Mao’s *Little Red Book was carried on the body or held aloft in staged acts of ideological affirmation. Disseminated on a...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...friend’s constancy, and 117–20 apologize for a lapse in the poet’s own fidelity. Sonnet 126, ‘O thou my lovely boy’—unusually, a poem in six rhymed couplets rather than a sonnet proper—marks a turning point: the last poem addressed to the young man, it offers a final warning to him of his inescapable mortality. The next sonnets, 127–52, are known as the ‘Dark Lady’ group, addressed to or concerned with an unfashionably dark-haired, dark-eyed, and dark-complexioned mistress. For the most part, these poems reproach her: she is a tyrant, black in deeds as well...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...cloth binding in the 19 th century led to a corresponding decline in the making and decoration of leather bindings, although the trade never died out. A reaction against a feeling that artistic standards in bookbinding had fallen was initiated in the 1880s by *Cobden-Sanderson , whose beautifully crafted bindings, produced to his own designs, inspired a revival of interest in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...widely used, stored cast type and delivered it as unjustified text to a composing stick, where a compositor inserted spaces and justified the line by hand. Such a composing machine, with a keyboard similar to that of a piano, was produced by Young & Delcambre in the late 1840s . More sophisticated machines of this kind were marketed successfully and used well into the 20 th century ( see composing machines ). The second system, which overtook the first, was for a machine that cast a new printing surface. Several machines of this kind were invented and...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...within the Company. In 1557 , the *Stationers’ Company was granted a Royal Charter giving it corporate legal status and the right to self-regulation. The Company gained powers to regulate *apprentices and apprenticeships and to seize illegal books ( see censorship ), and it prohibited printing by non-members. This largely confined printing to London, centralizing the trade until the end of the 17 th century ( see 20a ). The Company’s custom of recording permission to print a book—a practice inaugurated in part to forestall adverse competition between...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...hundred or wapentake parish by parish. A section on the topography of the parish is followed by chapters on manors and other estates , economic history, †local government, church, Nonconformity , †education, and charities for the poor. Nearly a hundred years later, over 200 volumes of the VCH have been published, but the original scheme is far from complete. The VCH provides a link between the best scholarship of the antiquarian tradition and that of the local historians of the 20th century. It is fitting that a Festschrift for the general editor, C....

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...husband bets 20 crowns that his wife will return most obediently when summoned. Bianca and the Widow refuse to come, but Katherine comes immediately, and at Petruccio’s bidding fetches the other two wives, throws off her hat, and preaches a long homily on wifely obedience, thereby winning him the wager. A delighted Baptista adds another 20,000 crowns to Petruccio’s winnings. (In The Taming of a Shrew , Sly, now asleep, is put back into his own clothes and returned to where the Lord found him: awakened at dawn by a tapster, he says he has had a wonderful...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...no later than 1608 . A manuscript copy of the play, most probably the promptbook used by the King’s Men at the Globe , was entered in the Stationers’ Register by Edward Blount on 20 May 1608 . In the same year, George Wilkins published a novel called The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre , which is clearly based on the play. The Italian ambassador Giorgio Giustinian saw a production of Pericles during his visit to London between January 1606 and November 1608 , and it is referred to as ‘new’ in a pamphlet, Pimlico , of ...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Even this ‘Germany’ was not a unity: the ‘Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation’ remained a loose conglomeration of territories and municipalities under the notional direction of the Holy Roman Emperor until its dissolution in 1806 . Austria then became a nation in its own right ( see 30 ). Whereas countries like Britain and France have for centuries had national capitals exerting a powerful cultural influence, it was not until 1871 that Berlin became the capital of the newly established German Reich. The 20 th century saw this unity torn...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...on cash payments led to a boom in cheap reprints in southern Germany and Austria. A prominent figure in this regard was *Trattner , court bookseller and printer in Vienna, who was actively encouraged by Empress Maria Theresa to issue reprints of German books. 3 Modern times Until 1918 , the centres of publishing and literary life in the Austrian empire were Vienna and Prague. Writers associated with Vienna at this time include Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Karl Kraus (founder of the most important critical journal of the early 20 th century, Die Fackel ),...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...justice. From around 1517–20 this work was given to a small panel of junior councillors who sat in the White Hall in the Palace of Westminster. This court was reconstituted in 1529 and again in 1538 . It became known as the Court of Requests, and specialized in poor men's suits. The council itself, which sat in the Star Chamber, a room in the Palace of Westminster, also received petitions for justice. So far as the surviving manuscript evidence allows, it appears that the numbers were small in Henry VII's reign (perhaps one a month), but Wolsey, in...

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