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Did you mean Network Science and International Relations, The “Rally-’Round-the-Flag” Phenomenon and the Diversionary Use of Force, Empirical Evidence for Empirical International Relations Theorizing: Tests of Epistemological Assumptions With Data ... Network Science and International Relations, The “Rally-’Round-the-Flag” Phenomenon and the Diversionary Use of Force, Empirical Evidence for Empirical International Relations Theorizing: Tests of Epistemological Assumptions With Data, Civil War and Terrorism: A Call for Further Theory Building, The Global Spread and Contraction of Democracy: A COEVOLUTIONARY Approach, Proxy Wars: Implications of Great-Power Rivalry for the Onset and Duration of Civil War, Arms Races: An Assessment of Conceptual and Theoretical Challenges, Understanding Government Behavior during Armed Conflict, The Impact of Meso-Level Assumptions on Grand Theorizing: Using Unit, State, and Regime Type for Constructing IR’s Historical Narratives (and Theory-Building), Defining and Operationalizing Context Through a Structural Political Geography for International Relations, Agent-Based Computational Modeling and International Relations Theory: Quo Vadis?, The Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to Uncertainty and Conflict in International Relations, A Unified Analysis of the Diversionary and Constraint Accounts of Crisis Initiation, Theory and Evidence Regarding the Effectiveness of Human Rights Treaties, The State of Hezbollah? Sovereignty as a Potentiality in Global South Contexts, Power Shifts and War, Analytical Liberalism, Neoclassical Realism, and the Need for Empirical Analyses, Hegemony, Hierarchy, and Unipolarity: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Hegemonic Order Studies, What Do We Know About Global Financial Crises? Putting IPE and Economics in Conversation, Power, Institutions, and Issues as Causes of Conflict Show More Show Less

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dominant alternative/strategy

In decision theory and game theory, an alternative or strategy (2) that, in every contingency that might arise, yields a payoff at least as good as the payoff from any other available ...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... times, finally, obligation was met through payments made by the spectators into a collecting ladle in return for the performance of a ritual (as though by actors). Such central and ancillary activities together, therefore, formerly combined to comprise a custom as a whole. At some periods customary and ritual practices seem to accrete, while at others they are either transformed or leave but a husk behind. The later Middle Ages, for example, appear to have seen the addition of a number of new observances: the feast of Corpus Christi, Robin Hood plays, lords of...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...articulated wall surfaces. After about 1810 , British architects adopted a restrained Grecian vocabulary whose basic structural element was the free-standing column (with a particular bias for the elegant Ionic order) and whose ubiquitous representational image was the detached temple front, a conventionalization of the mythological first primitive hut. The Grecian or *neoclassical revival thus stood for a return to the very beginnings of classicism, and its purity represented a conservative antidote to what Britton called the ‘mangled corpse’ of modern,...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...all zones of Pakistan make divorce subject to forms of arbitration. In Azad Kashmir the ‘bare talaq ’, a form of divorce in which a husband can sever a relationship with a triple declaration of the phrase ‘I divorce thee’, still has practitioners. The oral quality of the bare talaq decree may make a paper trail difficult to find. Civil courts can grant Christians a divorce in Pakistan, and copies of a specific case ruling can be obtained from the court. Many ex‐servicemen and officers of the Pakistan Air Force emigrated to England in the 1950s and found...

Tracing a Family Tree: Getting Started

Tracing a Family Tree: Getting Started   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,642 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and web sites. Local material can also be found in a variety of other locations such as the Mormon Family History Centres , museums , heritage centres, and local history collections at county libraries. In most cases admission is free, but it is wise to book an appointment, indeed essential if you wish to use a microfilm reader or computer. You will need to obtain a reader's ticket at the reception desk, so bring along a driving licence or some other means of identification. Go with a notebook and a pencil (for pens are not allowed as they might damage...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in a particular place, and at a particular moment in history. That is not to claim that all those people who share a surname necessarily share a common ancestry, for that is often not the case. It does mean, though, that a person called Taylor can hope to identify his own Taylor ancestor, the individual who was first given that name, possibly in quite different circumstances from other individuals called Taylor. The researcher will be related to some other Taylors but not by any means to all of them. However, it must be true that many of those who share a...

African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...slaves and freed men and women could obtain surnames were: Surname of an owner: this could be the last owner or a former owner. Surname of father: a white master or employee, a freedman, a slave from another plantation, or the name of the father's former or original owner. Surname of mother. Last forename: many slaves had multiple names; often this was to differentiate between slaves who had similar first names. This may have been kept as a last name especially if it was similar to local surnames. Chosen the surname: freed men and women could choose their...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...backwards from the census era, provided the foundation for E. A. Wrigley and R. S. Schofield , The Population History of England, 1541–1871: A Reconstruction ( 1981 ). A more recent concise survey covering a longer time‐span is Andrew Hinde , England's Population: A History from the Domesday Survey to 1939 ( 2003 ), while N. L. Tranter , Population and Society 1750–1940 ( 1985 ), Theo Barker and Michael Drake , Population and Society in Britain 1850–1980 ( 1982 ), and R. A. Houston , The Population History of Britain and Ireland,...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...their level of scholarship. By 1500 these early studies had created something of a tradition. They included descriptions of a county, of cities, and of ruins. But they did not have a common sense of purpose and cannot be regarded as a unified whole. Some were in the form of annals, and most relied uncritically on previous narratives. During the 16th century the Italian Renaissance became a European movement that inspired English writers to attempt something more rigorous. A large amount of manuscript material became available upon the dissolution of the...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...beyond the suburbs to the hinterland, few attempts have been made to study both the urban and rural parts of local society and economy as an integrated whole. A notable exception is John Goodacre , The Transformation of a Peasant Economy: Townspeople and Villagers in Lutterworth, 1500–1700 ( 1994 ). The need for a framework wider than that of a town or a rural community defined by the parish has been a matter of academic debate among local historians. The old concept of ‘ country ’ is useful in recognizing these local societies. See David Hey , The Fiery...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...world, securely rooted in the present and yet with a satisfying sense of age‐old continuities in time and tide, bird and blossom, rock and rain. Such engagements were lovingly rendered in fine books like Frank Mitchell's The Irish Landscape ( 1976 ), Tim Robinson's Stones of Aran ( 1986 ), F. H. A. Aalen , Kevin Whelan , and Matthew Stout (eds), Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape ( 1997 ), and Billy Colfer's The Hook Peninsula ( 2004 ). Besides environmental and archaeological perspectives, a further impetus for growth in local history came...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ground. A dedicated collection is A. A. Maclaren (ed.), Social Class in Scotland, Past and Present ( 1976 ). Elites too have received attention, appropriately enough in a country with a Calvinist past. It is also a far cry from Fraser's monumental histories, in which Balfour Paul lamented the absence of ‘family scandals’, to find studies of the mechanics of family aggrandizement on the public stage in works such as J. K. Stringer (ed.), Essays on the Nobility of Medieval Scotland ( 1985 ). Social history, essential for breathing life into a family...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Celtic Studies ( 1963 , 1966 , 1969 , 1972 ); also in A Bibliography of the History of Wales , ed. Philip Henry Jones (microfiche, 1988 ), and in Llyfryddiaeth Cymru/Bibliography of Wales ( 1985–6 , 1987–8 , 1989–90 ). Comments on a wide range of publications are presented by Gwyn A. Williams in When Was Wales ? ( 1985 ) and also in A People and a Proletariat , ed. David Smith ( 1980 ). There is a select bibliography in Settlement and Society in Wales , ed. D. Huw Owen ( 1989 ), a collection of essays examining various aspects of the...

Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

Joan Thirsk

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...A History of Kidlington, Yarnton, and Begbroke (Oxfordshire History Society, 24 ( 1893 ), not weaving them into a continuous narrative, but relating separate documents to evidence on the ground, dwelling on lively detail, and every now and then linking separated facts to conjure up a fresh view of a living scene. As a Catholic, she went on to gather systematically documents about Catholic families throughout the county, assembling some highly suggestive clues to a network of like‐minded families, which links firmly with present‐day interests in networks ( A...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the level of population of a particular community or region at various times in the past has become a major task for local historians, a prerequisite for the understanding of the development of local societies. Two pioneering works at regional and local levels were J. D. Chambers , The Vale of Trent, 1670–1800: A Regional Study of Economic Change ( Economic History Review , suppl. III ( 1957 ), an examination of industrial development and population trends, and W. G. Hoskins , ‘The Population of an English Village, 1086–1801 : A Study of Wigston Magna’ (...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was broken for the first time in British history. Net food imports rose by about a third, but were paid for by increased exports of manufactured goods. A falling proportion of the national workforce was able to produce most of the food that was necessary to sustain a population that was increasingly divorced from the land. Agricultural output doubled and labour productivity rose as the national population tripled. This was a considerable achievement, but did it amount to a revolution? The concept of an Agricultural Revolution in the 70 years between 1760 ...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the registering of a private agreement in Chancery or (the normal 18th‐century practice) by a private bill moved by the promoters of an enclosure. There was a similar lack of direction over the Poor Law. Powers to establish workhouses were granted by a number of Acts ( 1722 , 1782 , and other local Acts). It was up to an individual parish whether it wanted to adopt these powers. At Ashwell (Hertfordshire) in 1728 , the vestry decided to establish a village workhouse and ordered the poor to move there. Fifteen months later a further vestry...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... In 1725 a Newcastle clergyman, Henry Bourne ( 1694–1733 ), published a diffident, probing volume of popular ‘ceremonies and opinions’, Antiquitates Vulgares, or the Antiquities of the Common People . Bourne was a tailor's son and a glazier's apprentice before a patron sent him to Cambridge. Just over fifty years later, in 1777 another Newcastle clergyman, John Brand, nephew and former apprentice of a cordwainer, subsequently a student at Oxford, appropriated Bourne's famous piece of local sociology and turned it into a dialogue. Each of...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...I provided funding for the casting of a *fount of Irish type in 1567 , but the first Irish printed work did not appear until 1571 , when a trial piece entitled Tuar Ferge Foighide (a religious ballad by Philip Ó hUiginn) was produced. Shortly afterwards, Seán Ó Cearnaigh ( John Kearney ) printed the Abidil Gaoidheilge agus Caiticiosma , a Protestant *primer . These proselytizing efforts prompted a Catholic counter-move in which Irish Franciscan friars initiated a programme of Irish-language publishing from a base located first at Antwerp and,...

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,732 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...long jars’). Nineteenth-century German Romantic critics such as A. W. Schlegel situated the play in the wider context of Shakespeare’s histories as a whole, viewed as an epic national drama of political evolution. In 1944 E. M. W. Tillyard ’s Shakespeare’s History Plays adopted this interpretation but emphasized the divinely destined triumph of the Tudor dynasty: the history plays trace a pattern of national transgression, which begins with the deposition of Richard II, a descent into civil chaos, and the restoration of order in the political...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., with Patrick Stewart and Harriet Walter , achieved the brilliant compromise of a simple set, traditionally opulent and mimetic costumes, and a small auditorium, the Swan . Michael Dobson On the screen: A five-minute version (now lost) was made by George Méliès in 1899 , the same year as Beerbohm Tree ’s King John . Between 1951 and 1980 five versions were made, including a British film with Robert Speaight as Antony, a TV adaptation as part of the The Spread of the Eagle series ( 1963 ), the Charlton Heston film ( 1972 ), Trevor Nunn’s much...

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