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A

Subject: Religion

(Gk., alpha).

First letter of the Greek alphabet, combined with the last, Ω (omega), to refer to God as the beginning and the end, the all-encompassing.

Native North American art

Native North American art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
56,066 words
Illustration(s):
17

...as social commentary about the continuance of American Indian identity. Fonseca was successful with his use of the image of a coyote juxtaposed in a contemporary world. The folk tale value of the coyote is widely held among many American Indian groups, so his paintings of a coyote dancing with a leather jacket on in a multicolored nightclub were recognized as a comment about the continuance of American Indian identity within a cosmopolitan society. Kevin Red Star built upon this same foundation, as did Amado Peña with paintings and prints that used...

European American music

European American music   Reference library

Philip V. Bohlman, Stephen Erdely, Leon Janikian, Christina Jaremko, Ain Haas, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Mark Levy, Philip V. Bohlman, Robert C. Metil, Jesse A. Johnston, Julien Olivier, Stephen D. Winick, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Stephen d. Winick, Philip V. Bohlman, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Stephen Erdely, Lynn M. Hooker, Mick Moloney, Stephen D. Winick, Marcello Sorce Keller, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Katherine Brucher, Carol Silverman, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Chris Goertzen, Mark Forry, Janet Sturman, Philip V. Bohlman, Marcello Sorce Keller, Robert B. Klymasz, and Denis Hlynka

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
33,627 words
Illustration(s):
6

...a repertoire that was already rare in Hungary during the first wave of migration, were also only rarely found in North America. New-style folksongs are typically sung in a steady danceable rhythm; common structures include AABA, AA5BA, ABBA, or ABCA. Ex. 1 , recorded by a 79-year-old Hungarian-Canadian in Kipling, Saskatchewan (one of Canada's largest Hungarian settlements in the early 20th century), uses a preexisting couplet about a wanderer as the beginning of a song about the experience of migration: The whole world considers me a drunkard and a...

culture

culture   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
37,999 words

...historians has been with issues of lordship, power, and politics; the nobility had power, patronage, a near‐monopoly of violence, few scruples, and no souls. It is little wonder that, as a result, after the Reformation , when more records become available to give a more complete picture, the noble acquires piety, a conscience, and a fear of death, and is transformed into the ‘godly magistrate’. Yet that impression is almost certainly a distortion of a more complex picture. It has been noticed only recently how nobles, when elevated to the new status of...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Adolescent Health Care , 1:54–59. Bannon, A. 1975. Odd girl out . New York: Arno Press. Bannon, A. 2002. Women in the shadows . San Francisco: Cleis Press. Barak, A. , & W. A. Fisher . 2001. Toward an Internet-driven, theoretically-based innovative approach to sex education . The Journal of Sex Research , 38(4):324–332. Barak, A. , & W. A. Ficher . 2002. The future of Internet sexuality. In: A. Cooper , ed., Sex and the Internet: A guidebook for clinicians . New York: Brunner-Routledge. Barak, A. , W. A. Fisher , S. Belfry , & D. R. Lashambe ....

Artists

Artists   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
16,797 words
Illustration(s):
6

... England . His scenes of ships and barges near the coast, often with a jetty or a beach in the foreground, are typical products of the rather calm course most of the Dutch Romantics followed. Dutch Art. A Calm by Hermanus Koekkoek (1815–1862). © Guildhall Art Gallery /hip/ Art Resource, NY During a short period in the 1840s, maritime art enjoyed royal patronage. Prince Hendrik of Orange-Nassau, brother of King Willem II, made a career in the navy. Every year a squadron of warships made a training trip to the Mediterranean; several times the prince was...

New York

New York   Reference library

Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, John Shepard, Sara Velez, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, John Shepard, Sara Velez, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, John Shepard, Sara Velez, Joseph Horowitz, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, John Rockwell, Zdravko Blažeković, Edward A. Berlin, J. Bradford Robinson, John Rockwell, Zdravko Blažeković, Will Fulton, Evan Rapport, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, John Shepard, Nina Davis-Millis, Jonas Westover, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, John Rockwell, Paul Griffiths, Jonas Westover, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, Zdravko Blažeković, Jonas Westover, Irving Kolodin, Francis D. Perkins, Susan Thiemann Sommer, and Zdravko Blažeković

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
22,304 words
Illustration(s):
2

...premiere of Berlioz's Requiem with a chorus of 1200. Thomas responded with his May festival, also at the armory, fielding a chorus of 3000. When Damrosch died suddenly in 1885 , 23-year-old Walter Damrosch maintained his father's grand ambitions. A new balance of power pitted against one another Walter's New York Symphony and Oratorio Society, Anton Seidl's orchestra at the Met, and the three Thomas orchestras. If Walter was widely regarded as a mediocrity, Seidl, a charismatic Wagner protégé, introduced to New York a new podium species. In 1891—the same...

History of Linguistics

History of Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
44,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...analysis produces a more limited and economic inventory: in the present example, nine figurae account for the meanings of fifteen words, but then each new group of three words in the same series would require only one new figura. Glossematics also deals with general semiotic concepts: a “metasemiotic” is a language whose contentplane is a semiotic; a “connotative semiotic” is one whose expression-plane is a semiotic; and a “denotative semiotic” is one in which no plane is a semiotic. Thus, semiology is a metasemiotic whose content-plane is a connotative...

Cuba

Cuba   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,888 words
Illustration(s):
1

...role. An analysis of gender socialization shows a persistence of sexist behavior patterns that are transmitted within the family and also, a group of change indicators. In other words, although sons and daughters continue being educated in a differentiated manner and for a traditional family model, there is also, in many families, a more symmetrical couple model being transmitted to male and female descendants. A woman's role is not limited to being a mother and a wife. She is also a worker and a community activist, and her role includes the full...

Procedure

Procedure   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
49,068 words
Illustration(s):
8

...proceedings, in proceedings involving a divorce or the probate of a will, or when the remedy sought was of a type available in England only “in equity”—that is, in the Court of Chancery. Equitable remedies entailed a direct order to a party whose disobedience would result in punishment for contempt of court. In contrast, the judgment of a law court ordered a local sheriff to seize either property or, if need be, the person of a debtor to be imprisoned until a monetary obligation was satisfied. Trial by jury in eighteenth-century English practice brought...

Peacham, Henry

Peacham, Henry (1576?–1643)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
981 words

...for a penny, including the following: For a penny, you may see any monster, jackanapes, or those roaring boys, the lyons. For a penny, you may have all the newes in England, and other countries; of murders, flouds, witches, fire, tempests, and what no, in the weekly newes-books. For a penny you may have your dog worm’d, and so be kept from running mad. For a penny doubled a drunkard may be guarded to his lodging, if his head be light and the evening dark. A hard-favoured and ill-bred wench, made penny white may (as our times are) prove a gallant lady. For a...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...to create a monumental construction of terraced layers. If one had to choose a single image to represent ancient Maya civilization, this arrangement with a temple soaring skyward atop a dizzyingly steep pyramid would be an obvious choice. It is, in fact, the “temple-pyramid” combination—the location of the temple building atop a flat-topped pyramid—that is so characteristically Maya. Pyramids and Temples. The pyramid, consisting of a number of tiers of decreasing size creating a stepped profile, functions primarily to thrust the temple upward. It is a solid mass...

Musical theater

Musical theater   Reference library

Geoffrey Block, Kate Van Winkle Keller, Anne Dhu McLucas, Sandra Jean Graham, Orly Leah Krasner, Todd Decker, Paul R. Laird, Jessica Sternfeld, Garrett Eisler, John Koegel, Nancy Rao, Charles Hamm, and William A. Everett

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
15,860 words
Illustration(s):
3

...year, also with a book by Hart, inserted “Supper Time,” a profoundly troubling song about the lynching of African Americans, as a stark contrast to the frivolity of “Heat Wave,” a song about the weather. In I’d Rather Be Right ( 1937 ) Rodgers and Hart, again with a book by Kaufman and Hart, the writers most associated with political satire, even went as far as to make the current president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt , a character in a musical in which the troubled economy figured prominently in the plot. The following year Babes in Arms , a musical...

Codes of Law and Laws

Codes of Law and Laws   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
23,748 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of the patriline. First, when a man had a birth son or sons, the system of household division mandated equal division among the sons. Second, when a man did not have any birth sons, patrilineal succession required him to adopt a male heir for ritual and economic purposes. Under this regime of male inheritance, a woman could at most claim a dowry for an unmarried daughter or provision for maintenance in old age in the case of a widowed mother, usually in money or movable goods, not land. Scholars disagree about whether a half-share law was in place earlier...

History of the Field

History of the Field   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
40,352 words

...Kelly-Buccellati between 1976 and 1984 , uncovered an administrative building from the Khana period ( 1760–1600 bce ), a complex of artifacts identified as the “office” of a scribe. From this same period a temple of Ninkarrak contained a hoard of 6,637 beads, including seven contemporary scarabs. In the burnt house of Puzurum, the excavators found a storage room with a number of sealed contracts; in this same house a pantry contained a jar with cloves inside. Before Roman times, cloves had to come from the Melakas (Moluccas, Spice Islands) in Indonesia. In...

Disciplinary Views of War

Disciplinary Views of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...underlying their persistence. Previously, anthropology generally accepted the premise that tribal war was a given, part of what must be a long‐standing pattern of behavior. Recent work reacts against this presumption and through the concept of the “tribal zone” brings together a nuanced analysis of the hermeneutic approach with a historical appreciation of how external relations are critical in patterning a given war complex. A tribal zone is defined as a spatial and conceptual arena affected by the proximity of state systems, but not under direct state...

South America

South America   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Charles Stanish, Tom D. Dillehay, Thomas Pozorski, Shelia Pozorski, Anna Roosevelt, José Proenza Brochado, Francisco S. Noelli, James A. Zeidler, Theresa Lange Topic, Mary Van Buren, and Andrés Zarankin

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,578 words

...decorated ceramics, textiles, raw materials, food stuffs, utensils, and slaves were produced on a large scale. [ See also Mounds of the Amazon . ] Hemming, J. Red Gold , 1995. Lathrap, D. W. The Upper Amazon , 1970. Meggers, B. J. Archaeological Investigations of the Mouth of Amazon , 1957. Roosevelt, A. C. Moundbuilders of the Amazon , 1991. Roosevelt, A. C. Parmana , 1980. Roosevelt, A. C. , et al. “The Earliest Pottery in the Americas from a Shellmound in the Brazilian Amazon.” Science (1992). José Proenza Brochado and Francisco S....

Writing

Writing   Reference library

Denise Schmandt-Besserat, James L. Swauger, Marvin A. Powell, Christopher A. Rollston, James P. Allen, M. O’Connor, Christopher Rollston, William D. Whitt, Christopher A. Rollston, William D. Whitt, and Christopher Rollston

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,004 words

...an answer to a query but are careful not to give a correct answer, we know that we will never be certain of the meaning of a design or group of designs on the more than 100,000 recorded sites in the worldwide inventory, whose total grows even as this is written. An example of the difficulty of explaining the meaning of a petroglyph or pictograph design was furnished to us by W. J. Hoffman more than a hundred years ago. Cut into a birch-bark scroll used as a pattern for assuring proper performance of an Ojibwa Grand Medicine Society ceremony was a crude but...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...David . A Historical Commentary on Thucydides. A Companion to Rex Warner’s Penguin Translation . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997. Gomme, A. , A. Andrewes , and K. J. Dover . A Historical Commentary on Thucydides . Vol. 4, books 5.25–7. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970; Vol. 5, book 8. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. A detailed commentary in English on the Greek text of the last four books of Thucydides’ history, covering the years 421 to 411 b.c.e. The two volumes completed the three volumes on the first four books published by A. Gomme in...

Medieval Navies

Medieval Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
27,594 words
Illustration(s):
3

...They also controlled parts of Ireland , including Dublin . Their mastery of the sea was a result of their construction of large double-ended ships propelled by a square sail on a single mast. A fine example of this vessel type is the Viking ship found at Oseberg, Norway . Built around 820, the ship is 21 meters (69 feet) in length. It has beautiful lines and was used for a burial ceremony. The Gokstad ship is a heavier built vessel, 23 meters (75 feet) in length, with a mast and square sail. Built to carry cargo as well as people, this ship performed well in...

Translations

Translations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,966 words

...different kinds of scripture texts: a traditional type of translation to meet the needs of those whose religious experience has been deeply influenced by a particular kind of “holy language”; a common‐language translation (a modern koine) representing a relatively narrow overlapping of literary and colloquial usage; and a translation that fully exploits the total resources of a language and in this way does justice to the literary diversities of the Greek and Hebrew texts. See also Circulation of the Bible . Eugene A. Nida Ancient Languages The Hebrew...

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