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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

sport participation

sport participation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A measure, or at least indication, of the proportion of a population or a group engaging in a particular activity, usually on the basis of a stated frequency of participation in that activity. In ...
Prophethood

Prophethood   Reference library

David A. Kerr and Halim Calis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
838 words

...warners ( mundhir ) ( 2:213 ; 4:165 ; 6:48 ). The prophets are not responsible for the people's rejection of their message; their task is only to preach, warn, and remind ( 3:20 ; 5:99 ; 11:12 ; 16:35 ; 88:21 ). They will be accepted on Judgment Day as witnesses ( shahīd and shāhid ) for or against the people to whom they were sent ( 4:41 ; 16:84 , 89 ; 28:75 ; 33:45 ; 48:8 ). According to the Qurʾān, God has sent his messengers to every human community throughout history ( 16:36 ; 17:15 ; 35:24 ), although the Qurʾān names only a number of them,...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

...Matt 2:18 ; 3:9 ; 7:11 ; 9:2 ; 10:21 ; 11:25 ; 15:26 ; 18:3–5 ; 19:14 , 29 ; 21:16 ; 23:37 ; Mark 7:27–28 ; 9:37 ; 10:14–15 , 24 , 29 ; 13:12 ; Luke 3:8 ; 6:41–42 ; 7:35 ; 9:47–48 ; 10:21 ; 13:34 ; 14:26 ; 15:32 ; 17:3 ; 18:16–17 , 29 ; 19:44 ; 22:32 ; John 1:12 ; 8:39 ; 11:52 ). Jesus also uses fraternal imagery (though note that in Greek, “brothers” often was gender-inclusive, “brothers and sisters”) to describe spiritual unity within the family of God ( Matt 5:22–24 ; 7:3–5 ; 18:15 , 21 , 35 ; 20:17 ; 21:23 ; ...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

... 1979 ). Daughters born to free parents were generally free, but they could lose that status by being taken into captivity during war (e.g., Lev 25:44 ; Num 31:9–18 ; Deut 20:14 ; 1 Kgs 9:20–21 ) or given over to debt slavery ( Exod 21:7 ; Lev 25:47 ; Neh 5:5 , 8 ; cf. Deut 28:68 ; cf. Lev 25:39–43 ). Free women were rarely emancipated from a male potestas . Women who never married generally remained unemancipated in the household of their father or oldest surviving male relative until death, although they could inherit ( Num 26:33–27:11 ; ...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Naysan Rafati

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,023 words

...used to describe it is contested between greater emphases on the Israeli or Palestinian dimensions of identity (ICG, 2012 ). Arabs, divided between the majority Muslim and smaller Christian and Druze communities, are estimated to make up just over 20 percent of the country's total population of nearly 8 million. Figures issued by Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics in 2012 put the total Muslim population in the country at 1.354 million, the majority based in the north of the country and one-fifth of whom are concentrated in the city of Jerusalem....

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...are designated prophets: Abraham ( Gen 20:7 ), Aaron ( Exod 7:1 ), and Miriam ( Exod 15:20 ). However, the text implies that other figures who received divine revelation through dreams and visions were prophetic figures, such as Jacob ( Gen 28:11–12 , 17–18 ; 31:4–16 ), Joseph ( Gen 38:20–24 ), and Moses ( Exod 3:4b ). The book of Deuteronomy presents Moses as the founder of the office of prophet in ancient Israel and the prophet par excellence, the model for all others who come after him ( Num 12:6–8 ; Deut 13:1–5 [ Heb 13:2–6 ], 34:10 ; cf....

Marriage and Divorce

Marriage and Divorce   Reference library

Sarah Shectman, Annalisa Azzoni, Eva Cantarella, Julie Langford, Mary Rose D’Angelo, Shulamit Valler, and B. Diane Lipsett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,877 words

...Exceptions appear in the patriarchal narratives (e.g., Gen 26:34 ; 38:2 ; 41:45 ) as well as in the narratives about Moses ( Exod 2:21 ; Num 12:1 ) and Ruth. Some unions are even consanguineous ( Gen 20:12 ; 24:16 ; 29:12 ). Exogamy is specifically prohibited in legal codes ( Exod 34:16 ; Num 25:1–9 ; Deut 7:1–4 ). In Deuteronomy 23:78 , however, exceptions are allowed for Edomites and Egyptians, in contrast to Ammonites and Moabites, because of Israel’s kinship with Edom and its temporary residence in Egypt. Third-generation children of...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

... 1 ); Ruth and Naomi; Temple qĕdešîm ( 1 Kgs 14:24 , 15:12 , 22:46 [ v. 47 Heb.]; 2 Kgs 23:7 ); and the eunuchs in Esther ( chs. 1–2 , 4 , 6–7 ) and Daniel ( chs. 1 and 3 ). Key legal texts include Leviticus chapters 15, 18, and 20 (especially vv. 18:3 , 6–8 , 14 , 22 ; 20:13 ) and Deuteronomy 23:10–15 , 18–19 ; from ancient Near Eastern law: Hittite Law [HL] §§ 189–190 (ca. 1650–1180 b.c.e. ) and Middle Assyrian Laws [MAL] A 19–20 (ca. 1076 b.c.e. ). From biblical poetry, key texts include the “sex-positive” Song of Songs....

Asmāʾ al-Husna, al-

Asmāʾ al-Husna, al-   Reference library

Ghazala Anwar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
742 words

...al-Husna, al- . The term al-asmāʾ al-ḥusna (the Beautiful Names [of God]) is mentioned several times in the Qurʾān: “to him belong the beautiful names so call him by these names” (Qurʾān 7:180 , also 17:110 , 20:8 , and 59:22–24 ). The most used names for God in the Qurʾān are al-Raḥman (The Compassionate) and al-Raḥīm (The Merciful). Al-asmāʾ al-ḥusna is foundational to Islamic theology and mysticism ( taṣawwuf ). In Qurʾān 2:30–33 , God teaches Adam “all the names” of which the angels have no knowledge. It is this knowledge that makes Adam (and...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...to avoid the trap of the Pharisees’ question: “Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?” ( John 8:5 ). Rather than reject or advocate stoning, Jesus deflects the question by focusing on the sin of all present: “Let anyone among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her” ( 8:7 ). Jesus does not deny that the woman has committed a wrong, for he instructs her not to sin again ( 8:11 ), but his treatment of her sexual deviance acknowledges the shortcomings of all while offering the woman—exposed to public...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...Gen 12:10–20 ). Judah sentences Tamar, found to be pregnant while awaiting levirate marriage, to be burned, though the sentence is not carried out ( Gen 38:24–36 ). Reuben loses his birthright ( Gen 49:3–4 ). God punishes David with the death of the child from his adulterous sex with Bathsheba ( 2 Sam 11–12 ). While Absalom is not punished directly for adultery, his death is the result of his rebellion against his father, to which his adulterous act is integrally related ( 2 Sam 16.21–23 ; 20.3 ). Proverbs 2:16–19 ; 5:1–23 ; 6:20–35 , and 7:1–27 warn...

Gender Transgression

Gender Transgression   Reference library

Deryn Guest, Walter D. Penrose Jr., Eric Thurman, Sean D. Burke, Sarra Lev, and Kristi Upson-Saia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,362 words

...with their “hands” going limp ( Isa 13:78 , 19:16–25 ; 21:3–4 ; Jer 48:41 ; 49:22 ; Nah 3:13 ). Musing on such images, Jeremiah 30:5–6 provocatively has the Lord wondering whether men can actually give birth! When it comes to womanizing the enemy, gender transgression is evidently a phenomenon that can be played with entertainingly in the Hebrew Bible. Arguably, laws that relate to the inappropriate grasping of a man’s genitals ( Deut 25:11–12 ), the status of the man with crushed testicles ( Lev 21:20 ), or the eunuch ( Deut 23:1 ; cf. Isa ...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...Basic moral education of children (cf. Deut 6:1–9 ) likely took place in the extended family, and would have been offered by mothers, fathers, and others. Proverbs 1:8 , for example, speaks of the educational work of both fathers and mothers: “Hear, my child, your father’s instruction, and do not reject your mother’s teaching” (cf. Prov 4:3 ; 6:20 ; 10:1 ; 15:20 ; 23:22 ; 28:7 , 24 ; 29:3 , 15 , 17 ; 30:17 ; 31:1 ). It is possible that for some children, basic literacy was introduced in this familial context as well. For the bulk of the...

Authors of Biblical Books

Authors of Biblical Books   Reference library

Steed Vernyl Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,871 words

...9:17 , 20 ) even though it appears that men would join in these acts ( 2 Chr 35:25 ). In addition, women function as entertainers singing, dancing, and at times playing instruments ( Judg 21:21 ; Isa 23:16 ). Performing these roles in these social spaces provides women the opportunity to compose songs that make their way into the texts produced by men. Women’s leadership in victory songs after battles appears commonplace ( Judg 5:28 ). These short pithy songs offer time for celebration of the champion warrior as in the case of David ( 1 Sam 18:6–7 ) or the...

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,218 words

...of Discrimination Against Women.” Human Rights Law Review , 7:1 (2007): 217. UN Documents A full list of the CEDAW committee's general recommendations are available at the website of the High Commissioner for Human Rights at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/comments.htm. A List of state parties reservations and declarations are available at the website of the High Commissioner for Human Rights at: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en. Concluding Comments of the Committee on the...

Chinese Americans

Chinese Americans   Reference library

Xiao-huang Yin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...versus 8.1 percent. This is especially true of PRC immigrants. A study in 2000 revealed that 30 percent of the families in New York City’s Chinatown, which has the largest presence of PRC immigrants in America , lived below the poverty level. Similarly, 2010 statistics indicated that about 60 percent of Chinese Americans had a bachelor’s degree or higher, double the rate of the overall U.S. population. However, the percentage of Chinese Americans who had not completed high school was also larger than that of the rest of the population, 18.7 percent...

Jesus

Jesus   Reference library

Kathleen E. Corley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
7,786 words

...( 1984 , pp. 20–31; Durber, 1992 , p. 69). There are in fact only five parables now arguably considered authentic that utilize images of women: the Leaven ( Matt 13:3 / Luke 13:20–21 / Gos. Thom . 96), the Lost Coin ( Luke 15:8–9 ), the Empty Jar ( Gos. Thom. 97), the Unjust Judge ( Luke 18:2–8 ), and the Prodigal Son ( Luke 15:11–32 ). And of these only four focus on actions of women, since in the last case women are mentioned only briefly as the prostitutes ( pornai ) upon whom the Prodigal Son squanders his money ( Luke 15:20 ). Indeed, the...

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans   Reference library

G. Reginald Daniel and Josef Castañeda-Liles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...who reported more than one race provided only two races in 2010 ; white and black was the largest multiple-race combination. An additional 8 percent of the “two or more race” population reported three races, and less than 1 percent reported four or more races. Nearly three-quarters of the “two or more race” population was composed of four groups: white and black (1.8 million, or 20 percent), white and “some other race” (1.7 million, or 19 percent), white and Asian (1.6 million, or 18 percent), and white and American Indian or Alaska Native (1.4 million, or 16...

Disability Studies

Disability Studies   Reference library

Heike Peckruhn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,214 words

...messianic intervention, for example the ostracized bodies of the blind, lame, and leprous; the bedridden and paralyzed; the mute and those deformed by demons/spirits ( Mark 2:1–12 , 3:1–6 par. , 7:31–37 , 8:22–26 , 10:46–52 par. ; Matt 9:27–31 , 20:29–34 ; Luke 7:1–10 , 14:1–6 ; John 5:1–13 , 9:1–41 ; Acts 3:1–10 , 8:7 , 9:32–43 , 14:8–19 ). The narrative trope of healing the blemished and disabled serves to support the messianic storyline of Jesus fulfilling Jewish prophecies, mandating his authority, and bearing good news to the...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...to women ( Exod 22:17 ; Isa 57:3 ), to men and women ( Lev 19:31 ; 20:6 , 27 ), and to men but most likely inclusive of women ( Deut 18:9–14 ). There are similar prohibitions in the narratives composed by Deuteronomistic historians in the context of Josiah’s reform ( 2 Kgs 23:24 ). In the prophetic corpus, a number of texts denounce magico-religious practices among women. Some examples can be found in Isaiah 8:3 , 57:3 ; Jeremiah 7:18 ; 44:15–19 , 25 ; and Ezekiel 8:14 , 13:17–23 . The only other narrative describing divinatory practices is...

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