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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Secure Communities

Secure Communities   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,311 words

...PA 12/16/2008 413,254 2,582 11,086 13,668 260 135 307 112 335 91 1,240 PR 6/7/2011 20,796 98 119 217 4 2 1 0 3 4 14 RI 3/22/2011 56,672 675 1,920 2,595 28 22 34 54 23 8 169 SC 9/8/2010 405,954 1,256 7,602 8,858 294 625 1,096 34 235 132 2,416 SD 6/22/2010 45,538 270 900 1,170 28 20 28 7 7 3 93 TN 6/17/2010 666,275 2,145 13,405 15,550 489 584 1,098 79 237 92 2,579 TX 10/27/2008 2,513,354 39,747 128,181 167,928 14,947 10,871 19,305 656 5,455 2,051 53,285 UT 3/23/2010 197,723 2,427 6,023 8,450 922 526 506 25 354 96 2,429 VA 3/9/2009 689,341 6,399 23,842 30,241...

Farming, Latinoization of

Farming, Latinoization of   Reference library

Rogelio Saenz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,683 words

...9 acres 16.6 8.2 9.0 9.9     Pct. 10 to 49 acres 31.7 26.3 36.5 29.6     Pct. 50 to 179 acres 25.9 30.9 39.2 29.9     Pct. 180 to 499 acres 13.9 18.4 12.2 15.4     Pct. 500 acres or more 11.9 16.2 3.1 15.3 Pct. of Farms Owned 92.4 93.1 91.1 91.6 Pct. of Farms that are 90.3 89.6 94.8 91.4     Family-Individual Farms     Farms Pct. Full Owners 72.4 67.1 66.0 67.4 Avg. Value of $92,299 $95,187 $17,425 $47,988     Agriculture     Products Sold Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Loans and Federal     Farm Prog. Payments     Pct. Farms with CCC Loans 2.0 5.1 2.6 1.2...

Health, Children’s

Health, Children’s   Reference library

David E. Hayes-Bautista, Zalya Castañer, and Mithi del Rosario

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,108 words

...death rate is 22.7 deaths for every 100,000 toddlers. Male toddlers have a higher death rate (25.0) than female toddlers (20.2). The overall Latino toddler death rate (22.7) is lower than the rate for non-Latino whites (24.7) and the rate for non-Latino blacks (40.2). Ages 5–9. The most common causes of death for young Latino children are accidents, cancer, and congenital conditions. The Latino age-specific death rate is 8.8 deaths for every 100,000 young children. Male children have a higher death rate (10.0) than female children (7.6). The overall Latino...

Birth Defects

Birth Defects   Reference library

Adela de la Torre and Terence Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,109 words

...10.60 11.30 13.16 13.40 10.10 13.30 10.70 11.80 11.70 13.10 Low-birth- weight rate 2 6.25 7.80 5.75 6.50 9.40 9.60 6.50 6.20 5.95 6.50 7.55 8.40 Infant mortality rate 3 6.28 5.33 6.03 5.12 8.88 7.18 5.29 5.77 5.52 4.47 Birth rate 4 12.50 10.90 25.80 18.10 19.00 14.60 10.80 9.00 24.20 24.00 Infant mortality rate caused by: Congenital Malformation 5 151.50 119.20 177.10 147.10 142.50 100.80 150.90 117.10 Short gestation and LBW 6 65.50 73.60 64.30 73.50 108.20 165.00 84.20 80.10 Number of Births (in 100s) 23,826 21,624 4,696 5,983 548 663 124 168 949 1,426 478...

Identity, Politics of

Identity, Politics of   Reference library

Suzanne Oboler, Deena J. González, Frances R. Aparicio, María de los Angeles Torres, and Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,860 words

...Central American 7,010 0.0 93,234 0.3 86,224 1,230.0 South American 1,035,602 4.7 1,419,979 4.0 384,377 37.1     Argentinean 100,921 0.5 107,275 0.3 6,354 6.3     Bolivian 38,073 0.2 45,188 0.1 7,115 18.7     Chilean 68,799 0.3 73,951 0.2 5,152 7.5     Colombian 378,726 1.7 496,748 1.4 118,022 31.2     Ecuadorian 191,198 0.9 273,013 0.8 81,815 42.8     Paraguayan 6,662 0.0 8,929 0.0 2,267 34.0     Peruvian 175,035 0.8 247,601 0.7 72,566 41.5     Uruguayan 21,996 0.1 20,242 0.1 −1,754 −8.0     Venezuelan 47,997 0.2 96,091 0.3 48,094 100.2     Other South...

Midwest Voter Registration Education Project

Midwest Voter Registration Education Project   Reference library

Teresa Puente

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,201 words

...million in 2004 to 19.5 million in 2008 . Almost 5 million Hispanic voters turned out for the 1996 presidential election, and that number grew to almost 6 million in the 2000 election. In 2004 Latinos cast 7.6 million votes, and that grew to 9.7 million votes in 2008 . The Latino share of US votes rose to 8.4 percent in 2012 compared to 7.4 percent in 2008 (11.2 million Latino votes were cast in 2012 , accounting for 48 percent of eligible Latino voters. USHLI faces the challenge that many Latinos and Latinas are not US citizens, and therefore are...

Sensenbrenner Act (2005)

Sensenbrenner Act (2005)   Reference library

Ediberto Roman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
638 words

...Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies, 3 May 2006. http://www.cis.org/articles/2006/2006poll.pdf . Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 . S. 2611, 109th Cong. (7 April 2006). See id . at §§ 601–11. Kleven, Thomas . “Systemic Classism, Systemic Racism: Are Social and Racial Justice Achievable in the United States?” Connecticut Public Interest Law Journal 8 (2009): 207–253. Securing America’s Borders Act . S. 2454, 109th Cong. (16 March 2006). http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SN02454:@@@D&summ2=m& . Ediberto Roman...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz and Phillip Granberry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,525 words

...Rate (%) 1980 1990 2000 2010 United States, overall 12.1 13.2 11.9 15.3 Non-Hispanic white population 8.6 9 7.9 7.1 Non-Hispanic black population 28.7 29.8 24.1 27.1 Non-Hispanic Asian population 12.7 14.6 12.1 12.5 Latina/Latino population 23.5 24.4 22.3 24.8 Source : 1980 , 1990 , 2000 , 2010 US Census of Population. Table 2. Latina and Latino Poverty Rates, 2010 Poverty Rate (%) Overall Latina/Latino population 24.8 Mexican 26.6 Puerto Rican 26.7 Cuban 17.5 Dominican 26.3 South Americans 14.0 Central American 21.5 Source: 2010 US Census of...

Brazilians

Brazilians   Reference library

Ana Christina Braga Martes and Sarah Faleiros

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,714 words

...to Martes ( 2011 ) and Fleischer ( 2006 ). Table 1. Brazilians by US State, 1980–2010 1980 1990 2000 2010 California 8,688 15,304 29,640 30,167 Florida 3,024 10,301 49,153 73,827 Massachusetts 2,880 11,674 42,237 65,170 New Jersey 4,800 11,870 25,194 35,800 New York 8,352 16,677 24,974 26,401 Other 20,256 32,275 75,829 115,981 Total 48,000 98,101 247,000 347,346 Source : US Census Population, 1980–2000 (from Goza 2004 :7); US Census Bureau, 2006–2010 (American Community Survey). The ranking of US regions in terms of the highest concentration of...

Race and Racialization

Race and Racialization   Reference library

Jorge Duany

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,875 words

...White Non-Hispanic, Other Management, business, and financial 15.6 8.2 18.0 13.0 Professionals and related 22.1 11.4 24.3 22.6 Service occupations 18.0 27.4 14.4 23.4 Sales and related 10.8 9.5 11.3 10.0 Office and administrative 12.8 12.2 12.8 13.5 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0.7 1.8 0.5 0.3 Construction and extraction 4.8 9.4 4.4 2.2 Installation, maintenance, and repair 3.3 3.3 3.5 2.4 Production 6.0 8.7 5.4 6.0 Transportation and material moving 6.0 8.1 5.3 6.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: US Census Bureau, The Hispanic...

Immigration

Immigration   Reference library

Ted A. Henken and Hector Cordero-Guzman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,994 words

...categories of “some other race” (5.8 percent) and “two or more races (3.7 percent).” (Only 4.6 percent of Cubans identified as black alone). At the other extreme, Dominicans were the Latino group least likely to self-identify as white (29.6 percent) and most likely to self-identify as black (12.9 percent) when choosing a single race. Still, along with Salvadorans (50.5 and 6.9 percent) and Guatemalans (49.4 and 7.2 percent), Dominicans overwhelmingly preferred “some other race” (46 percent) or “two or more races” (9.7 percent), than to be hamstrung within...

Public Policy

Public Policy   Reference library

Adela de la Torre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,728 words

...20.9 2 Cancer 20.2 3 Unintentional injuries 10 4 Stroke 4.2 5 Diabetes 4.1 6 Chronic liver disease 3.8 7 Homicide 3.4 8 Suicide 2.7 9 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 2.6 10 Influenza and pneumonia 2.4 Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Leading Causes of Death for Hispanic Males.” http://www.cdc.gov/men/lcod/2009/LCODhispanicmales2009.pdf . Table 3. Top Ten Leading Causes of Deaths for Latinas Rank Female Percentage 1 Cancer 22.3 2 Heart disease 21.0 3 Stroke 6.0 4 Diabetes 4.9 5 Unintentional injuries 4.4 6 Alzheimer’s disease 3.2 7...

Labor Market, Latinos and Latinas in the

Labor Market, Latinos and Latinas in the   Reference library

Elaine Levine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,847 words

... 2013 ). It has risen slightly since then;. The average rate for 2007–2011 was 25.8 percent. The Latino experience in this respect has been somewhat different. The poverty rate for Latino/as rose from 22.8 percent in 1972 (when it was first registered) to 30.7 percent in 1994 and has declined significantly since then. Nevertheless from 1994 through 1997 the poverty rate was slightly higher for Latino/as than for African Americans. It reached a minimum level of 20.5 percent in 2006 . The average rate for 2007–2011 was 23.2 percent. Of all persons...

National Forests

National Forests   Reference library

Rubén Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,091 words

...establishment of national forests in 1908 . To these were added millions more acres so that in 1908 , 8.5 million acres in New Mexico were national forest lands, and 13.5 million in Arizona were so designated. In 2009 , 56 million, or 29.1 percent, of the 193 million acres managed by the Forest Service were located in four of the five Southwestern states considered the traditional homeland of Mexican Americans. Approximately 11.3 million are in Arizona, 20.1 million are in California, 14.5 million are in Colorado, and 9.4 million are in New Mexico. Only...

Employment Discrimination

Employment Discrimination   Reference library

Rebecca Morales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,092 words

...Agriculture 3,305 22.5 Mining 521 8.3 Construction 9,433 14.9 Manufacturing 19,940 12.3 Transportation, Communication, Public Utilities 9,740 9.4 Wholesale and Retail Trade 27,932 12.2 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate 8,727 6.9 Services 39,695 9.1 Business and Repair Services 9,661 11.0 Personal Services 4,515 18.6 Private Households 894 29.8 Hotels and Lodging Places 1,443 21.0 Entertainment and Recreation 2,582 9.6 Professional and Related Services 32,784 7.1 Public Administration 6,015 7.3 Total Employed 135,206 10.7 Source: United States Bureau of Labor...

Rural America

Rural America   Reference library

Dionicio Valdés and Scott R. Sanders

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,364 words

...is significantly larger than the 2000 to 2010 population growth of non-Latino whites (1.8 percent), African Americans (2.9 percent), Asians (37.4 percent), and Native Americans (7.5 percent). Furthermore, Latino population growth accounted for more than half of the total rural population growth between 2000 and 2010 . This growth also resulted in Latino/as surpassing African Americans as the largest ethnoracial minority group in the rural United States, at 9.3 and 8.2 percent, respectively. The growth of the rural Latino population was in part spurred by...

Undocumented Immigrants

Undocumented Immigrants   Reference library

Alexandra Délano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,349 words

...removed in 2008 , up from 18,000 in 1980 . More than 2 million unauthorized immigrants have been removed between 2008 and 2014 . Place of Origin In 2012 an estimated 6.7 million of unauthorized immigrants were from Mexico, constituting 59 percent of the total unauthorized migrant population. Between 2000 and 2009 , the Mexican-born unauthorized immigrant population increased 2.0 million or 42 percent. No other country has a two-digit percentage share of the total unauthorized migrant population. After Mexico, the next leading source countries for...

Justice for Janitors

Justice for Janitors   Reference library

Linda Heidenreich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
912 words
Illustration(s):
1

...University Janitors Vote to Ratify New Contract Agreement.” http://www.seiu.org/2011/11/harvard-janitors-vote-to-support-ratification-of-c.php . Service Employees International Union . Justice for Janitors. http://www.seiu.org/a/justice-for-janitors/justice-for-janitors-20-years-of-organizing.php . Linda...

Chinese Exclusion Cases

Chinese Exclusion Cases   Reference library

John R. Wunder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
896 words

...Exclusion Cases A series of disputes settled by the Supreme Court during the 1880 s and 1890 s: Chew Heong v. United States , 112 U.S. 536 ( 1884 ), argued 30 October 1884 , decided 8 December 1884 by a vote of 7 to 2, Harlan for the Court, Field and Bradley in dissent; United States v. Jung Ah Lung , 124 U.S. 621 ( 1888 ), argued 9 January 1888 , decided 13 February 1888 by a vote of 6 to 3, Blatchford for the Court, Harlan in dissent; Chae Chan Ping v. United States (also recorded as The Chinese Exclusion Case), 130 U.S. 581 ( 1889 ),...

Housing and Segregation

Housing and Segregation   Reference library

Jose Ramon Sánchez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,213 words

...1990–00 1980–00 Established Latino Metros 35,161,592 7,180,206 20% 39,098,721 10,286,158 26% 43,957,950 14,119,006 32% 43% 37% 97% 79% New Latino Destinations 54,800,178 1,309,221 2% 62,620,505 2,333,640 4% 73,078,851 5,282,035 7% 78% 126% 303% 22% Fast-Growing Latino Hubs 14,418,567 2,033,540 14% 19,395,646 3,801,089 20% 24,485,665 6,818,961 28% 87% 79% 235% 48% Small Latino Places 30,666,478 666,145 2% 30,719,535 811,802 3% 31,946,791 1,203,339 4% 22% 48% 81% 42% Total 135,046,815 11,189,112 8% 151,834,407 17,232,689 11% 173,469,257 27,423,341 16% 54%...

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