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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization  

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Overview Page
(WTO)An international organization with 136 member countries that was set up in 1994 to replace the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in order to regulate international trade.
G20

G20   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
284 words

...its policy effectiveness in comparison to the G7/8 is minor. Whereas the G7 has an established history of delivering a number of significant global initiatives, the G20 remains fairly stagnate and ineffective in its ability to generate dynamic global policy initiatives and general consensus. That said, the G20 does offer a unique forum to tackle global collective action problems. Given that the G20 represents two-thirds of the world’s population and most of its economic viability, it has built-in potential to be a meaningful global policy forum, which could...

G7

G7   Quick reference

Vivien Collingwood

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,113 words

...dilemma. Lastly, the G7 continues to face criticism concerning its representativeness and relevance in the global economy, in light of its exclusive nature. While G7 members still account for almost two‐thirds of global economic output (measured by GNP), the non‐inclusion of rising economic powers such as China and India has been widely criticized. This issue was addressed at the 1999 Cologne Summit, when eleven states—including Brazil, Australia, Argentina, and South Africa—joined the G8 to form the Group of Twenty (G20) . The G20 aims to promote dialogue...

Group of Twenty

Group of Twenty   Reference library

Stephen Gill

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,171 words

...weight and more balanced political composition, the G-20 is widely held to be a more suitable venue than the Western-dominated Group of Seven (G-7) financial ministerial and Group of Eight (G-8) summit meetings of political leaders. With the post- 2008 economic crisis, the G-20 seems to have partly replaced the G-7/G-8 as the principal forum for international economic cooperation, leaving the G-8 summits to focus more on political and security issues. Critics have argued that the creation of the G-20 has further sidelined the more representative United...

strategy

strategy   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
228 words

...Even in a trivial game such as noughts-and-crosses (tic-tac-toe) the first player has nine legal opening moves. To each of the second player’s eight legal responses the first player has seven legal replies, thus 504 strategies for the first two moves alone, and a total of 20,160 (9 × 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 × 3) strategies for the complete game. Most of these strategies would of course be extremely silly, and many of them are identical because of the rotational symmetry of the game. However, the example shows that analysis of strategies must depend on ruthlessly...

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account whether elections had consequences, that is, whether elections were subsequently annulled, or followed by a coup...

Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals   Reference library

David Hulme

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,827 words

...diseases. Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss. Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Target 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. Goal 8: Develop a...

HIV and AIDS in Africa: Global Politics and Domestic Consequences

HIV and AIDS in Africa: Global Politics and Domestic Consequences   Reference library

Alan Whiteside

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,627 words

...NA Sierra Leone 1.7% rising Reasonable 20,905 0.8 South Sudan 2.7% rising Unknown 24,154 9.5 Tanzania 4.7% falling Reasonable 226,371 47.7 Togo 2.1% falling Unknown 24,594 8.1 2. Generalized, 5%–10% Equatorial Guinea * 6.2% rising Poor 8,715 90 Kenya 5.4% falling Good 1,174,884 29 Malawi 9.2% falling Good 218,441 2.6 Uganda 5.9% falling Good 9 13 3. Hyper-epidemic, >10% Botswana 21.9% stable Good 390,616 76.6 Eswatini 27.2% stable Good 96,931 34.2 Lesotho 25% stable Good 111,570 43.6 Mozambique 12.3% stable Good 329,521 2.5 Namibia 13.8% stable Good 201,060...

Social Security

Social Security   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,294 words

...in their homes, and, for some, work in their later years. But even for those who are relatively well off, the roughly 4.9 million elderly households with incomes between $20,001 and $33,777 in 1996 , Social Security provides nearly half of the total income going to their homes. For the bottom 60 percent of the elderly income distribution—those 14.7 million households with incomes under $20,000 in 1996 —Social Security provided over 70 percent of all household income. Absent Social Security, the poverty rate among the old would increase to roughly 50 percent....

Famine

Famine   Reference library

Robert Paarlberg

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,046 words

...of Famine Relief. (Washington, D.C., 1992). Dreze, Jean , Amartya Sen , and Athar Hussain . The Political Economy of Hunger. (Oxford, U.K., 1995). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations . Report for the G-8 Summit, 8–10 July 2009. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/newsroom/docs/FAO_G8_backgrounder.pdf . Sen, Amartya . Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. (Oxford, U.K., 1981). Robert Paarlberg...

Belgium

Belgium   Reference library

Mike Beke

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,554 words

...Politieke Wetenschappen . (Gent, Belgium, 2006). Federal Planning Bureau . Accessed 8 August 2011, http://www.plan.be/ . Fiers, Stefan . De Spelregels van de democratie: Kiesstelsels en politieke systemen in Europa . (Brussels, Belgium, 2009). Flemish Government . Accessed 8 August 2011, http://www.vlaanderen.be/ . Government of the Walloon Region . Accessed 8 August 2011, http://www.wallonie.be/nl/index.html . Government of the Walloon Community . Accessed 8 August 2011, http://www.cfwb.be/ . McWilliams, Wayne and Piotrowski, Harry . The World...

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa   Reference library

Amy R. Poteete

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,080 words

...Africa (30%) Moderate Algeria (29%) Morocco (27%) 10 countries 20%–29% Kenya (29%) Sudan (25%) (18.9%) Gambia (27%) Botswana (24%) Guinea Bissau (27%) Madagascar (20%) Togo (23%) Zimbabwe (20%) Low Cape Verde (17%) Tanzania (14%) 13 countries 10%–19% Burkina Faso (15%) Ghana (11%) (24.5%) Angola (14%) Burundi (10%) Cameroon (10%) CAR (10%) Chad (10%) Congo, Rep. (10%) DRC (10%) Liberia (10%) Libya (10%) Very low Mauritius (9%) Gambia (9%) Senegal (8%) 11 countries < 10% Rwanda (8%) Namibia (5%) (20.8%) Lesotho (5%) Tunisia (5%) Niger (5%) Côte d’Ivoire Swaziland...

Electoral systems

Electoral systems   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,188 words

...political party system was emerging in the colonial lower houses, Victoria had 73 single‐member and 11 two‐member districts, Queensland had 50 and 11 respectively, and Tasmania had 20 and 8. All of South Australia 's districts were two‐member; all of Western Australia's single‐member. New South Wales had a unique mechanism for growth that produced 35 single‐member, 20 two‐member, 10 three‐member, and 9 four‐member districts. Although the Commonwealth Constitution allowed the House of Representatives a choice of district magnitude, only at the 1901 ...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Alan Dowty

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,322 words

...of the peace process. Ethnic and Religious Divisions. At the end of 2011 Israel's population stood at about 7.8 million, of which 75 percent were Jews and 20.5 percent Arabs. The Jewish population is almost evenly divided between Jews of European background ( Ashkenazim ) and those from the Middle East, Africa, or Asia ( Sephardim ). An important part of the Ashkenazi community consists of immigrants from the former Soviet Union—some 20 percent of Israel's population—who have created a new subculture and have helped push Israeli politics in a more...

BRIC Countries

BRIC Countries   Reference library

Oliver Stuenkel

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,540 words

...“a world in which the US plays a prominent role in global events, but . . . as one among many global actors.” The transition from the G8 to the G20 is one of the most powerful symbols of this shift toward a more multipolar order. Aside from making up 43.3 percent of the global population and a quarter of the earth's territory, the BRICs had been responsible for 36.3 percent of world GDP growth in PPP terms (or 27.8 percent in US dollars) during the first decade of the century ( Wilson et al., 2010 ). The BRIC acronym both captured and further enhanced these...

Namibia

Namibia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,127 words

...(318,261 sq. mi.; 824,292 sq. km.), about twice the size of California, but possessing a population of only about 1.7 million. Most of the infrastructure of the country is sandwiched between the Namib Desert along the Atlantic coast and the Kalahari Desert, which straddles the Botswana border. Windhoek is the capital and largest city with a population of about 130,000. Walvis Bay, Namibia's principal port, possesses a population in excess of 20,000. Namibia is a relatively prosperous country, possessing a GDP per capita income of US$3,700. It is among the top...

Westphalian System

Westphalian System   Reference library

Jack Donnelly

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,855 words

...Right, as well in Spirituals and Temporals, Seigneuries, [and] Regalian Rights” (O8.1/M64); “Rights, Privileges, Regalian Rights, Territories, and Goods Ecclesiastical and Secular, by whatever name they are called” (O11.1); “all Rights, Properties, Domains, Possessions, and Jurisdictions” (M74). Furthermore, the particular rights of rulers derived not from a general right of supreme jurisdiction but from ancient usage (e.g., O4.16/M25, O8.4/M67) or contract (e.g., O4.7/M16, O11.8, O15.14/M61, M9). The Westphalian treaties gave rulers neither exclusive jurisdiction...

The Sahel: Regional Politics and Dynamics

The Sahel: Regional Politics and Dynamics   Reference library

Sebastian Elischer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,858 words
Illustration(s):
2

... page. 7. Following is the breakdown of disbursements in all four countries over a five-year average (2010–2015): Niger: EU, 24%; International Development Association, 14%; USA, 13%; France, 8%. Mali: USA, 20%; EU, 15%; International Development Association, 12%; Canada, 7%; France, 7%. Mauritania: EU, 16%; Islamic Development Bank, 12%; Arab Fund, 12%; France, 10%; USA, 5%. Chad: EU, 27%; USA, 21%; France, 9%. The breakdown is confined to countries contributing at least 7% of all disbursements. Data available on AidFlows website. 8. The author has...

China’s Economic Impact on Africa

China’s Economic Impact on Africa   Reference library

David H. Shinn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,649 words

...). At the continental level, China’s interaction is coordinated by the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), which meets every 3 years at the ministerial or summit level. The 7th FOCAC met in Beijing in September 2018 when President Xi Jinping pledged a financing package of $60 billion. It consisted of $15 billion in grants, interest-free loans, and concessional loans; $20 billion in credit lines; a $10 billion special fund for development finance; a $5 billion fund for financing imports from Africa; and encouragement to Chinese companies to invest at...

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa   Reference library

Catherine Boone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,318 words

...2002 ) . On Côte d’Ivoire see Dozon ( 1985 ) ; Chauveau ( 2000 ) ; Koné ( 2002 ) . On Zimbabwe, see Alexander ( 1994 ) ; Kriger ( 2007 ) ; Moyo and Yeros ( 2005 ) ; and on Rwanda, see Verwimp ( 2011 ) . 6. Interviews in Abidjan, October 20, 2010. 7. On Rwanda, see Verwimp ( 2011 ) ; Boone ( 2014 , Chapter 8). 8. On the DRC, see Mararo ( 1997 ) ; Mathieu ( 1997 ) ; Mathieu, Laurent, Mafikiri Tsongo, and Mugangu ( 1999 ) ; Mathieu and Willame ( 1999 ) ; and Vlassenroot and Raeymaekers ( 2004 ) . 9. On Côte d’Ivoire, see Babo and Droz ( 2008 ) ;...

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