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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Character Displacement

Character Displacement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...spaced apart in body size, beak size, or other traits involved in resource use: For example, mean canine tooth diameter of Israel's three species of small wild cats ( Felis ) forms a regular series, with a nearly constant separation of 0.6–0.8 mm, when males and females are included separately: 4.7, 5.4, 6.2, 6.9, 7.6, and 8.4 mm ( Dayan et al., 1990 ). Such regularity cannot be accounted for by chance, and divergence stemming from resource competition provides a ready explanation. The quality of the observational evidence for character displacement has been...

Convergent and Parallel Evolution

Convergent and Parallel Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
1,982 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Patient 10 (28–30) 54 (160–162) 71 (211–213) 82 (244–246) 90 (268–270) P4-0 CTC ATC GCT GTC TTG P4-75 ATC GTC GTT GCC ATG P5-0 CTT ATC GCT GTC TTG P5-59 ATT GTC GTT GCC ATG P6-0 CTC ATC GCT GTC TTG P6-71 ATC GTC GTT GCC ATG P7-0 CTC ATC GTT GTC TTG P7-60 ATC No change No change GCC ATG P8-0 ATC ATC GCT GTC TTG P8-72 GTC GTC No change GCC ATG Experimental Convergent Evolution One of the most exciting areas of research in convergent evolution comes from the field of experimental viral evolution. Jim Bull and colleagues have exploited the...

Peppered Moth

Peppered Moth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...reverse. Table 1. The Decline in Melanism in the Peppered Moth since Anti-pollution Legislation Year Caldy Common, West Kirby, northwest England Cambridge, England George Reserve, Michigan, USA 1960/1961* 94.2 94.8 91.7* 1965 90.2 — — 1970 90.8 75.0 — 1975 86.6 64.7 — 1980/1981* 76.9 45.9* — 1985 53.5 39.5 — 1990 33.1 22.2 — 1995 17.6 19.2 20.0 1998*/2000 11.5* 15.1 Industrial melanism has evolved in many other species, although the details vary. In Britain, more than 100 species of moths show industrial melanism of one type or another, and cases involving...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,349 words
Illustration(s):
6

...homozygotes are favored during successive selective events, heterozygous advantage may accumulate (Mitton, 1997 ; Gillespie , 1991 ). Table 3. Heterozygous Advantage Can Accumulate from a Series of Selective Events Genotype w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4 w cum w rel AA 1.0 .4 1.0 .8 .3200 .85 Aa .7 .7 .8 .9 .3528 1.0 aa .4 1.0 .6 1.0 .2400 .68 note : w 1 through w 4 are fitnesses in selective events 1 through 4. Cumulative fitness, w cum , is the product of w 1 , w 2 , w 3 , and w 4 . Relative fitness, w rel , is obtained by dividing all of the w cum by the...

Hominid Evolution

Hominid Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
14,569 words
Illustration(s):
5

...enlargement and modern form of bipedal skeleton; first hominin known outside Africa (Georgia) Homo erectus 1.9–?0.4 Myr Form of archaic Homo , known principally in Asia. Homo heidelbergensis 0.7–?0.2 Myr Robust Homo from Africa and Europe, strongly associated with mode 2 (Acheulean hand axes) technologies, showing considerable brain enlargement Homo antecessor ±0.8 Myr Controversial hominin with some modern features known from Spain Homo helmei 0.3–0.2 Myr Controversial species with larger brains and mode 3 technologies proposed as more derived ancestor of...

Genetic Load

Genetic Load   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,825 words
Illustration(s):
1

...their chance of surviving to reproduce. The absolute chance of survival for AA is 40 percent, for Aa 50 percent, and for aa 30 percent. We assign a fitness of 1 to the Aa genotype. Relative to that, the fitness of AA is 0.8 and of aa is 0.6. The mean fitness of the population is w̄ = 1/3 (0.8) + 1/3 (1) + 1/3 (0.6) = 0.8 (1) It is less than 1 because not everyone in the population has the best genotype. We can now define genetic load (symbolized by L ) as L = 1 − w̄ (2) In this imaginary example, L = 0.2. The genetic load of a population...

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...decades. Others, such as influenza, reappear periodically to cause major epidemics or even pandemics (epidemics that affect the entire world). The black death of the Middle Ages, tuberculosis in the late nineteenth century, the influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 (with an estimated 20 million deaths worldwide), and the AIDS pandemic of today, are all diseases that have had significant public health impact. (Humans have at times attempted to exploit the impact of infectious diseases through biological warfare or bioterrorism.) With increasing globalization, all...

Birds

Birds   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...trade in wild birds, pesticides, and pollution will not be restricted to island forms. Avian Genome Evolution The genome in birds is both smaller in size and less variable across species than in other tetrapods. Mean DNA content for 165 avian species is 2.8 picograms per cell, compared to about 8.0 picograms per cell in mammals. Small cells have a greater rate of gas exchange per unit volume than large cells, due to their greater surface-to-volume ratio. Genome and cell size are strongly correlated in vertebrates. Thus, it seems the unique metabolic...

Molluscs

Molluscs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,973 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the six remaining classes. Class Monoplacophora or Tryblidia. Known only as Lower Cambrian-to-Devonian (c.525–350 million years ago) fossils until 1957 , when the first living representative was discovered, this class remains the smallest in number of extant species, with about 20. More than 100 Paleozoic and Mesozoic fossil genera are known. All are marine, and the known living members occur on hard substrates at depths of 180–4,000 meters (600–13,000 feet). Superficially, living monoplacophorans (the name means “one plate”) resemble limpetlike gastropods....

Quantitative Genetics

Quantitative Genetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,115 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Rates of Evolution under Three Kinds of Selection for Five Well-Studied Traits in Drosophila melanogaster Relative rate Trait h 2 CV A Truncation Linear Shift optimum Sternopleural bristles 0.44 8.39 1.00 0.49 0.02 Wing length 0.36 1.56 0.15 0.01 0.01 Fecundity 0.06 11.90 0.57 1.00 1.00 Longevity 0.11 9.89 0.54 0.69 0.04 Development time 0.28 2.47 0.20 0.04 0.02 source: Houle, 1992. Predicting the Response to Selection The usefulness of predictions based on the breeder's equation has been confirmed by many experiments in plant and animal breeding over...

Warfare

Warfare   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...theory of nonstate warfare. Gat, A. “ The Human Motivational Complex: Evolutionary Theory and the Causes of Hunter-Gatherer Fighting. Part 1: Primary Somatic and Reproductive Causes; Part 2: Proximate, Subordinate, and Derivative Causes. ” Anthropological Quarterly 73 (2000): 20–34; 74–88. Argues that fighting is an evolved feature of our nature with interconnected competition over resources, status and prestige, and reproduction as the root cause of conflict and fighting in humans as in all other animal species. Goodall, J. The Chimpanzees of Gombe:...

Language

Language   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...novel vocalizations, or approximations to the words of any human language. The human brain clearly is specialized to regulate speech production. As we talk, the sequence of phonemes (meaningful sounds, roughly approximated by the letters of the alphabet) transmits words at rates of 20 to 30 phonemes per second. In contrast, the human auditory system fuses discrete nonspeech sounds into a buzz at rates exceeding 15 per second. The rapid transmission rate of speech is achieved by encoding—that is, melding phonemes into syllables transmitted at a slower rate that...

Neutral Theory

Neutral Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,748 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Clock . Akashi, H. “ Inferring Weak Selection from Patterns of Polymorphism and Divergence at ‘Silent’ Sites in Drosophila DNA. ” Genetics 139 (1995): 1067–1076. Allison, A. C. “ Aspect of Polymorphisms in Man. ” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia in Quantitative Bioliology 20 (1955): 239–255. Ayala, F. “Darwinian versus Non-Darwinian Evolution in Natural Populations of Drosophila .” In Proceedings of the 6th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics and Statistical Problems , edited by L. M. Le Can , and E. L. Scott , pp. 211–236, Berkeley, 1972....

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
8,300 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Salmonella , Shigella , and Vibrio . Many of the life-threatening problems of antibiotic resistance emerge and evolve in hospitals, particularly in neonatal wards and intensive care units. Among them, the most worrisome organisms are found in some institutions at frequencies over 20 percent, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , frequently showing a multiresistant phenotype; vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ; Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli with extended-spectrum _-lactamases; and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...by a series of expert commentaries and a rejoinder by the author. Reprinted in its entirety from a special issue of the Journal of Consciousness Studies (7.1–2 2000). Lamb, M. E. , R. A. Thompson , W. P. Gardner , E. L. Charnov , and D. Estes . “ Security of Infantile Attachment as Assessed in the ‘Strange Situation’: Its Study and Biological Interpretation. ” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1984): 127–171. A technical review on attachment followed by a series of expert commentaries and a rejoinder by the authors. MacDonald, K. B. , ed. ...

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