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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

earth’s atmosphere

earth’s atmosphere   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
345 words
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1

...layer reflects medium-frequency waves. The F-layer (150–1000 km) is also called the Appleton layer after its discoverer Sir Edward Appleton ( 1892–1965 ). It has the highest concentration of free electrons and is the most useful for radio transmission. Wavelengths between 8 mm and 20 m are not reflected by the ionosphere but escape into space. Therefore television transmissions, which utilize this range, require artificial satellites for reflection (or reception, amplification, and retransmission). From about 400 km, the outermost region of the atmosphere...

big-bang theory

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A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
979 words
Illustration(s):
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...14 Quarks and leptons begin to form. 10 −3 second 10 12 Quarks form the hadrons; quark confinement begins. 10 2 second 10 7 Helium nuclei formed by fusion. 10 5 years 10 4 Atomic era; atoms form as protons combine with electrons. 10 6 years 10 3 Matter undergoes gravitational collapse. 1.8 × 10 10 years 2.7 Present day: cosmic background corresponds to about 2.7K. The future Research into the future of the universe is clearly speculative. Whether the universe will continue to expand indefinitely depends...

SAE

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...USA] engineering . A scheme for grading lubricating oils according to their viscosity under varying temperature conditions. Approximate equivalents in centipoises are in Table 45. Table 45 at: 0°F (-17.8°C) 100°F (-37.8°C) 210°F (-98.9°C) SAE 10W 1 950 41 6.0 SAE 20W 6 550 71 8.5 SAE 30 114 11.3 SAE 40 173 14.8 SAE 10W-30 76 12.7 SAE 20W-40 93 13....

preferred numbers

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...∼ 1.4 1.4 1.4 7 1.5 1.496 2 ∼ 1.5 8 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.584 9 ∼ 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 9 1.7 1.678 8 ∼ 1.7 10 1.8 1.8 1.778 3 ∼ 1.8 1.8 1.8 11 1.9 1.883 6 ∼ 1.9 12 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.995 3 ∼ 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 13 2.12 2.113 5 ∼ 2.1 14 2.24 2.24 2.238 7 ∼ 2.2 2.2 2.2 15 2.36 2.371 4 ∼ 2.4 16 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.511 9 ∼ 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 17 2.65 2.660 7 ∼ 2.6 18 2.8 2.8 2.818 4 ∼ 2.8 2.8 2.8 19 3.0 2.985 4 ∼ 3.0 20 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.162 3 ∼ 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 21 3.35 3.349 7 ∼ 3.4 22 3.55 3.55 3.548 1 ∼ 3.6 3.6 3.5 23 3.75 3.758 4 ∼ 3.8 24 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0...

alpha particle mass

alpha particle mass   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...particle mass sub-atomic physics . Symbol m α . 6.644 656 20(33) × 10 -27 kg = 7 294.299 536 5(31) m e with relative standard uncertainties 5.0 × 10 -8 and 4.2 × 10 -10 . Mohr P. J. , Taylor B. N. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2002 (to be published) Mohr P. J. , Taylor B. N. Rev. Mod. Phys. 72:351–495 (2000) Mohr P. Phys. Today 53:7, 11–16 (2000) For latest recommended values, see ...

deuteron

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...2002 (to be published) Mohr P. J. , Taylor B. N. Rev. Mod. Phys. 72:351–495 (2000) Mohr P. Phys. Today 53:7, 11–16 (2000) For latest recommended values, see http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html of associated fundamental constants, with relative standard uncertainties , are: deuteron magnetic moment (μ d ) 0.433 073 65(11) × 10 -26 J⋅T -1 2.6 × 10 -8 deuteron mass ( m d ) 3.343 583 20(17) × 10 -27 kg 5.0 × 10 -8 = 3 670.482 9654(16) m e 4.3 × 10...

atomic unit

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...× 10 -18 J 17 force E h / a 0 8.238 722 5(14) × 10 -8 N 17 magnetic dipole moment e ⋅ℏ/ m e 1.854 801 90(16) × 10 -23 J⋅T -1 8.6 magnetic flux density ℏ/ e ⋅ a 0 2 2.350 517 42(20) × 10 5 T 8.6 magnetizability e 2 ⋅ a 0 2 / m e 7.891 036 60(13) × 10 -29 J⋅T -2 1.7 momentum ℏ/ a 0 1.992 851 66(34) × 10 -24 kg⋅m⋅s -1 17 permittivity e 2 / a 0 ⋅ E h 1.112 650 056∼ × 10 -10 F⋅m -1 (exact) time ℏ/ E h 2.418 884 326 505(16) × 10 -17 s 0.0* velocity (or speed) a 0 ⋅ E h /ℏ 2.187 691 263 3(73) × 10 6 m⋅s -1 0.33 The asterisked figure is...

tun

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...252.20∼ US gal); see Table 57(a). Table 57(a) UK, US-C US-C: SI US-C liq firkin* of ale … … … … 59.7∼ L 15.8∼ gal 2 kilderkin … … … 59.7∼ L 15.8∼ gal 4 2 barrel … … 119.∼ L 31.5∼ gal 8 4 2 hogshead … 239.∼ L 63.0∼ gal 16 8 4 2 pipe, butt 477.∼ L 126.∼ gal 32 16 8 4 2 tun 954.∼ L 252.∼ gal * a firkin of ale or beer; see Table 57(b) for firkin of wine. US-C 252 US gal (953.92∼ L, 209.83∼ BI gal); see Table 57(b). Table 57(b) UK, US-C US-C: SI US-C liq rundlet … … … 68.2∼ L 18.0∼ gal tierce … … 159.∼ L 42.0∼ gal 2 firkin,* puncheon, tertian 318.∼ L 84.1∼ gal 7 3...

equation of time

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...-3m23s -1m36s 6 7 +5m57s +14m10s +11m17s +2m23s -3m27s -1m25s 7 8 +6m23s +14m14s +11m03s +2m06s -3m31s -1m14s 8 9 +6m49s +14m16s +10m48s +1m49s -3m35s -1m03s 9 10 +7m14s +14m18s +10m33s +1m32s -3m38s -51s 10 11 +7m38s +14m19s +10m18s +1m16s -3m40s -39s 11 12 +8m02s +14m20s +10m02s +1m00s -3m42s -27s 12 13 +8m25s +14m19s +9m46s +44s -3m44s -15s 13 14 +8m48s +14m18s +9m30s +29s -3m44s -3s 14 15 +9m10s +14m16s +9m13s +14s -3m44s +10s 15 16 +9m32s +14m13s +8m56s -01s -3m44s +23s 16 17 +9m52s +14m10s +8m39s -15s -3m43s +36s 17 18 +10m12s +14m06s +8m22s -29s -3m41s...

drill size

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...0.038 3.6576 27 0.144 6.9088 I 0.272 0.9906 61 0.039 3.7338 26 0.147 7.0358 J 0.277 1.0160 60 0.040 3.7973 25 0.1495 7.1374 K 0.281 1.0414 59 0.041 3.8608 24 0.152 7.3660 L 0.290 1.0668 58 0.042 3.9116 23 0.154 7.4930 M 0.295 1.0922 57 0.043 3.9878 22 0.157 7.6708 N 0.302 1.1811 56 0.0465 4.0386 21 0.159 8.0254 O 0.316 1.3208 55 0.052 4.0894 20 0.161 8.2042 P 0.323 1.3970 54 0.055 4.2164 19 0.166 8.4328 Q 0.332 1.5113 53 0.0595 4.3053 18 0.1695 8.6106 R 0.339 1.6129 52 0.0635 4.3942 17 0.173 8.8392 S 0.348 1.7018 51 0.067 4.4958 16 0.177 9.0932 T 0.358 1.7780...

pitch

pitch   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Equal temperament Hz Note (1 f /1 = 1 f ) 1.0 f 261.626∼ C 1.059 5∼ f 277.183∼ • (9 f /8 = 1.125 0 f ) 1.122 5∼ f 293.665∼ D 1.189 2∼ f 311.127∼ • (5 f /4 = 1.250 0 f ) 1.259 9∼ f 329.628∼ E (4 f /3 = 1.333 3∼ f ) 1.334 8∼ f 349.228∼ F 1.414 2∼ f 369.994∼ • (3 f /2 = 1.500 0 f ) 1.498 3∼ f 391.995∼ G 1.587 4∼ f 415.305∼ • (5 f /3 = 1.666 7∼ f ) 1.661 8∼ f 440. A 1.781 8∼ f 446.164∼ • (15 f /8 = 1.875 0 f ) 1.887 7∼ f 493.883∼ B (2 f /1 = 2 f ) 2.0 f 523.251∼...

electromagnetic spectrum

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...10 22 2.997 924 58 × 10 -14 gamma rays, radioactive nuclei 10 21 2.997 924 58 × 10 -13 gamma rays, x-rays 10 20 2.997 924 58 × 10 -12 x-rays, inner shell of atoms 10 19 2.997 924 58 × 10 -11 x-rays, positron-electron annihilation 10 18 2.997 924 58 × 10 -10 ultraviolet, x-rays, atoms in sparks 10 17 2.997 924 58 × 10 -9 ultraviolet atoms in sparks and arcs 10 16 2.997 924 58 × 10 -8 ultraviolet atoms in sparks and arcs 10 15 2.997 924 58 × 10 -7 visible light atoms, hot bodies, molecules 10 14 2.997 924 58 × 10 -6 infrared hot bodies, molecules 10 13...

bu.

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...dekare, the tonne appeared only as metric ton. US-C dry The volume of a cylindrical vessel of 18½ in diameter and 8 in deep (identically that for the British Winchester bushel of 1697 ), i.e. 2 150.420∼ in 3 (35.239 07∼ L) if strictly striken. See Table 8. Table 8 US-C for dry goods SI BI dry pint … … … … 551.∼ mL 0.969∼ pt 2 dry quart … … … 1.10∼ L 1.94∼ pt 16 8 peck … … 8.81∼ L 1.94∼ gal 64 32 4 bushel … 35.2∼ L 3.88∼ pk 8 quarter 282.∼ L 7.75∼ bu mass . A unit imputed from the preceding volume unit, especially for the measurement of grains, etc., the...

hundredweight

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A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...America. See pound for more precise values, and Table 25 for scales. Table 25(a) BI, Australia, New Zealand SI lb … … … … 454.∼ g 14 stone … … … 6.35∼ kg 28 2 quarter … … 12.7∼ kg 112 8 4 hundredweight … 50.8∼ kg 2 240 20 ton 1016.∼ kg For downward extension, see ounce . Table 25(b) US-C, Canada SI lb … … … … 454.∼ g 25 quarter … … 11.3∼ kg 100 4 hundredweight … 45.4∼ kg 2 000 20 ton 907.∼ kg For downward extension, see ounce . The cwt was removed from official UK measures in 1985 .The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for...

apothecaries' scale

apothecaries' scale   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...usual avoirdupois scale with its pound of 16 ounces and 7 000 grains (making its ounce 437.5 gr), the apothecaries' scale, like the troy scale , has a pound of only 12 ounces each of 480 grains, giving a total of 5 760 grains, the grain being the one unit common to all three scales. The distinctive scale for apothecaries' units is shown in Table 2. Table 2 BI-apoth, US-C-ap Internat values: SI US-C-av grain … … … 64.8∼ μg 1 gr 20 scruple … … 1.30∼ g 20 gr 60 3 drachm, dram … 3.89∼ g 60 gr 480 24 8 ounce 31.1∼ g 1.10∼ oz 5 760 288 96 12  pound 373.∼ g 13.2∼...

hardness numbers

hardness numbers   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...Press, 2000 or later) for more Table 23 name: Rockwell Vickers Brinell Shore scale: C A D superficial load: 60 kg-f 100 kg-f penetrator: stnd WC 68 85.6 76.9 93.2 75.4 940 97 60 81.2 70.7 90.2 66.6 697 654 81 52 76.8 64.6 86.4 57.4 544 500 512 69 44 72.5 58.5 82.5 47.8 434 409 409 58 36 68.4 52.3 78.3 38.4 354 336 336 49 28 64.3 46.1 73.9 28.9 286 271 271 41 20 60.5 40.1 69.4 19.6 238 226 226 34 160 152 152...

particle size

particle size   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...512 cobble -8 256 cobble 254 203.2 cobble -7 128 gravel 76.2 pebble -6 64 60 coarse pebble gravel -5 32 20 medium pebble -4 16 -3 8 6 fine pebble granule -2 4 10 very coarse sand very coarse sand -1 2 coarse sand coarse sand 18 coarse sand coarse sand 0 1 0.6 medium sand 35 medium sand medium sand 1 0.5 60 fine sand fine sand 2 0.25 0.2 medium sand fine sand very fine sand 3 0.125 140 very fine sand 0.105 8∼ silt coarse silt 4 0.062 5 0.06 fine sand silt medium silt 5 0.026 25 0.02 silt fine silt 6 0.015 6 very fine silt 7 0.007 8 clay coarse clay 8 0.003 9...

normalized

normalized   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...mathematics . Applied to numbers expressed as a mantissa multiplied by an exponential expression, e.g. 8.97∼ × 10 20 , the term applies to having the mantissa within some defined range. The above is identically 0.897∼ × 10 21 , 89.7∼ × 10 19 , 897.∼ × 10 18 , 0.089 7∼ × 10 22 , and any other of the unlimited equivalent variants. Clearly any non-zero number can be written such that the mantissa is within some pre-set range that spans, multiplicatively, the size of the base. For base 10, as in the above example, we can fix the range to be from 1...

Baumé

Baumé   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...145 with 15° Bé for 15% salt by mass in water but a temperature of 10° Réaumur (12.5°C, 54.5°F); example values are: Specific gravity 1 1.01 1.03 1.1 1.5 2.0 ° Baumé 0.72 1.44 4.22 13.18 48.3 72.5 A scale with 0° Bé for 10% salt and 10° Bé for pure water and m = -140 is used for liquids less dense than water (hence having readings greater than 10° Bé); example values are: Specific gravity 1 0.95 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 ° Baumé 10 17.37 25.56 45. 70. 103.3 The scheme for API gravity (for petroleum) is structured identically with the less dense Baumé but has a...

in.

in.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

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Current Version:
2004

...Table 26 Internat, BI, US-C, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, etc. SI inch … … … … … 25.4 mm 12 foot … … … … 305.∼ mm 36 3 yard … … … 914.∼ mm 198 33:2 11:2 rod … … 5.03∼ m 792 66 22 4 chain … 20.1∼ m 7 920 660 220 40 10 furlong, eighth 201.∼ m 63 360 5 280 1 760 320 80 8 mile 1.61∼ km Internat, BI, US-C 1959 25.4 mm, so 1 m = 1 / 0.0254 in = 39.370 078 7∼ in. (However, because of their entrenched representation in so many land surveys and of the effect of even very minor differences in definition when magnified by geographical distances, the then...

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