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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

slogans from science

slogans from science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
883 words

...now and again to keep the planets going, which God did until Pierre-Simon de Laplace showed that no intervention was necessary (“Sire, je n’ai pas besoin de cette hypothèse” [6]). No wonder France had decided that “la République n’a pas besoin des savants” [7]. Changing topics in a “quantum leap” [8], we observe that although “Cogito ergo sum” [9] may be a good test for the existence of a philosopher, it was fatal for “Buridan's ass” [10]. Nature is interested in the “survival of the fittest” [11], not of the smartest. That makes no difference in the long...

star

star   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,035 words

...but continue condensing to become neutron stars, about 20 km across. Stars more massive than about 3.2 solar masses (the Oppenheimer-Volkov mass, calculated in 1939 ) become black holes. See also Astronomy ; Cosmology ; Solar Physics . Agnes M. Clerke , A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century (1885). Martin Johnson , Astronomy of Stellar Astronomy and Decay (1950). A. Pannekoek , A History of Astronomy (1961). Otto Struve and Velta Zebergs , Astronomy of the 20th Century (1962). Martin Harwit , Cosmic Discovery: The...

Human ecology

Human ecology   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,236 words

...he wrote, ‘the human species would increase in the ratio of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, etc. and subsistence as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc.’ Malthus' reasoning has a modern ring to it, because so many have echoed him, right through to the 21st century, even though his proposition has been falsified till now. After huge increases in numbers in the industrialized world in the 19th century, a global population explosion began around 1930 . By the end of the 20th century human numbers had increased about sixfold since Malthus' time but...

Earthquakes

Earthquakes   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,641 words

...to grow into a very big one, ranked at magnitude 7–9, with slippages of metres or tens of metres over long distances. The outcome depends on the length of the eventual crack in the rocks. Crack prediction is a notoriously difficult problem in materials science, with the uncertainties of chaos theory coming into play. In most micro-earthquakes the rupture is halted in a short distance, so the scope for false alarms is unlimited. ‘As there are 100,000 times more earthquakes of magnitude 2 than of magnitude 7, a short-term prediction is bound to be very...

Carbon cycle

Carbon cycle   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,112 words

...Keeling's third discovery. The wavy line sloped upwards, rising relentlessly as the years passed. In parts per million by volume, the annual average of carbon dioxide in the air grew from 317 in 1960 to 326 in 1970 , and to 339 in 1980 . An increase of seven per cent in just 20 years, with an acceleration in the second decade, was no small excursion. It told of some planetary change in progress, affecting the carbon cycle in a remarkable way. Waiting in the wings for just such a discovery as Keeling's was the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming...

education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table 4.Proportions of Retained Science Career Choices Compared with the Proportions of Gaining New Science Career Choices and the Odds in Favor of Retention Rather Than Gaining New Choices for Seventh Grade through End of Secondary U.S. Students (1988 U.S. Grade 7 Cohort...

Hybrid Seeds

Hybrid Seeds   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...put the technology beyond the reach of most farmers. In 2010 , it was estimated that more than 148 million hectares globally was planted with genetically modified crops, up from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 . Twenty-nine countries were growing genetically modified crops, led by the United States (66.8 million hectares), Brazil (25.4), Argentina (22.9), India (9.4), Canada (8.8), China (3.5), Paraguay (2.6), Pakistan (2.4), South Africa (2.2), and Uruguay, with 1.1 million hectares (“Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2010”). [ See also ...

Space Science

Space Science   Reference library

Michael H. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Landsats 5 and 7 remained in service in 2012 . Landsat 7—14 feet long, 9 feet in diameter, and weighing 4,800 pounds—went into operation in April 1999 . Because it recorded images of about one-fourth of the world’s landmass every 16 days, it has produced a continuous archive of topographical change, monitoring such evolving landscapes as the urban sprawl of Washington, D.C., the Antarctic ice sheet, and the massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 . NASA and the USGS launched Landstat 8 on Feb 11, 2013 . With the activation of Landsat 7, the entire...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...In 1900 the e(0) for blacks was about 20 percent lower than that for whites, and their infant mortality rate was about 54 percent higher. The situation had been even worse around 1850 , when blacks, mostly slaves, had an estimated e(0) of 23 to 40 percent lower than that for whites—and an estimated infant mortality rate of about 350—a full 61 percent higher than that for whites. Although between 1850 and 1900 the absolute differences in the infant mortality rate between blacks and whites had narrowed to about 8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, the...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Centennial of Naval Aviation Forum, 20–22 September 2011, Virginia Beach, Virginia. NASA, Space Shuttle . “Space Shuttle Program: Spanning 30 Years of Discovery.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html , no pagination (accessed 20 March 2012). A competent, up-to-date summary of the Space Shuttle program’s history. Sutton, George P. , and Oscar Biblarz . Rocket Propulsion Elements . 8th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. The most recent edition of a classic account of...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...around 1825 . Many British machinists developed the metal planer; Joseph Whitworth’s planer spread to the United States around 1838 . The milling machine and other American innovations spread among industries. Annual machine-tool patents increased from 0.7 before 1846 to 8.0 in the following 20 years. The new machine tools greatly improved precision in a wide range of industries, making it possible for the first time to produce complex engines, printing presses, and, in a positive feedback, accurate machine tools. Convergent production innovations...

Asthma and Allergy

Asthma and Allergy   Reference library

Carla C. Keirns

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a Book of Formulas , pp. 9, 92–93. Chicago: Oleson & Co., 1891. Peumery, Jean-Jacques . Histoire Illustrèe de l’Asthme: de l’Antiquitè á Nos Jours . Paris: R. Dacosta, 1984. Strobel, Martine . Asthma bronchiale: die Geschichte seiner medikamentosen Therapie bis zum Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts . Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1994. Carla C....

Space Program

Space Program   Reference library

Michael H. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rebounded, in part because of sheer good fortune. To make up for lost time, the agency gambled in December 1968 with Apollo 8 . Originally an orbital mission to test system hardware, the Apollo program directors decided instead to send it on a circumlunar voyage. The mission succeeded. Then, about five months before J.F.K.’s challenge expired, NASA launched Apollo 11 to the Moon. Events at first unfolded routinely. But on 20 July 1969 , as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin orbited in the lunar module, they faced a crisis. First, the onboard computer froze....

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...limiting abortion after 20 weeks following fertilization all contained similar limiting language: “Medical emergency means a condition which, in reasonable medical judgment, so complicates the medical condition of the pregnant woman as to necessitate the immediate abortion of her pregnancy to avert her death or for which a delay will create a serious risk of substantial and irreversible physical impairment of a major bodily function” [See Ala. Code §§ 26-23B-1–B-9 ( 2011 ), Idaho Code Ann. §§ 18-501–510 ( 2011 ), Ind. Code §§ 16-34-2-1–7 ( 2011 ), Kan. Stat....

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the Western Hemisphere. Its crest length of 1,244 feet (379 meters) and spillway capacity of 270,000 cubic feet per second, or cfs (7645.5 cubic meters per second, or cms; 1 cubic foot of water is approximately equal to 7.5 gallons) are also impressive. Lake Mead, the reservoir behind the dam, can store nearly 29 million acre-feet of water (35.8 billion cubic meters). The reservoir provides water for municipal and industrial use, for irrigation, and for the 17 turbines at Hoover Dam, which annually supplies about 4 billion kilowatts of electricity. Glen Canyon...

indigenous knowledge

indigenous knowledge   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...physician sent by King Philip II to Central America to conduct a botanical exploration. WIPO. Recognition of Traditional Knowledge within the Patent System . Geneva: WorldIntellectual Property Organization, 2004. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/tk/en/wipo_grtkf_ic_7/wipo_grtkf_ic_7_8.pdf . Mario Incayawar...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...infusions from nonfederal sources. Over the course of the 1990s, the share of funding for basic research provided by industry actually grew from 10 percent to 25 percent of the national total, although basic research accounted for just 5 to 7 percent of total R&D expenditures by industry. Private funds accounted for 20 percent of national funding for basic research even after large infusions of federal funds during the opening decade of the new millennium. Most of those private funds went to basic research conducted at industrial facilities, but some 15 to 25...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...8ahT7q_Jqr26AGE0LGFCQ#v=onepage&q=Pollard%2C%202%2C286%2C571&f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2344108 . Rosheim, Mark E. Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. Ross, Philip E. “Westinghouse Cuts Interest in Robots.” New York Times Business Day , 11 June 1987. Accessed 20 January 2012 from ...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and found that 41.8 percent affirmed belief in a personal God “to whom one may pray in expectation of receiving an answer.” Because he did not ask how many endorsed a less personal divinity, such as a God who did not answer intercessory prayers, it is impossible to determine the percentage of theists. Of the same group, 50.6 percent subscribed to the notion of individual human immortality. In general, the more distinguished the scientist, the greater the likelihood of disbelieving in these “two fundamental dogmas” of Christianity: only 27.7 percent of his...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on a proprietary basis; that is, they were commercial businesses owned by the medical faculty, typically five to seven local physicians who aspired to make a profit from students fees: $3–5 to matriculate, $15 per ticket for specific courses, $5–10 to attend a dissection, and $15–20 to graduate. Although the proprietary schools sometimes obtained their charters from existing colleges and universities, they had no real academic or financial connection to the “parent” institution. Occasionally, a medical society or a hospital would launch a medicine school, and...

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