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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Hybrid Seeds

Hybrid Seeds   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...put the technology beyond the reach of most farmers. In 2010 , it was estimated that more than 148 million hectares globally was planted with genetically modified crops, up from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 . Twenty-nine countries were growing genetically modified crops, led by the United States (66.8 million hectares), Brazil (25.4), Argentina (22.9), India (9.4), Canada (8.8), China (3.5), Paraguay (2.6), Pakistan (2.4), South Africa (2.2), and Uruguay, with 1.1 million hectares (“Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2010”). [ See also ...

Space Science

Space Science   Reference library

Michael H. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Landsats 5 and 7 remained in service in 2012 . Landsat 7—14 feet long, 9 feet in diameter, and weighing 4,800 pounds—went into operation in April 1999 . Because it recorded images of about one-fourth of the world’s landmass every 16 days, it has produced a continuous archive of topographical change, monitoring such evolving landscapes as the urban sprawl of Washington, D.C., the Antarctic ice sheet, and the massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 . NASA and the USGS launched Landstat 8 on Feb 11, 2013 . With the activation of Landsat 7, the entire...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...In 1900 the e(0) for blacks was about 20 percent lower than that for whites, and their infant mortality rate was about 54 percent higher. The situation had been even worse around 1850 , when blacks, mostly slaves, had an estimated e(0) of 23 to 40 percent lower than that for whites—and an estimated infant mortality rate of about 350—a full 61 percent higher than that for whites. Although between 1850 and 1900 the absolute differences in the infant mortality rate between blacks and whites had narrowed to about 8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, the...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Centennial of Naval Aviation Forum, 20–22 September 2011, Virginia Beach, Virginia. NASA, Space Shuttle . “Space Shuttle Program: Spanning 30 Years of Discovery.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html , no pagination (accessed 20 March 2012). A competent, up-to-date summary of the Space Shuttle program’s history. Sutton, George P. , and Oscar Biblarz . Rocket Propulsion Elements . 8th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. The most recent edition of a classic account of...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...around 1825 . Many British machinists developed the metal planer; Joseph Whitworth’s planer spread to the United States around 1838 . The milling machine and other American innovations spread among industries. Annual machine-tool patents increased from 0.7 before 1846 to 8.0 in the following 20 years. The new machine tools greatly improved precision in a wide range of industries, making it possible for the first time to produce complex engines, printing presses, and, in a positive feedback, accurate machine tools. Convergent production innovations...

Asthma and Allergy

Asthma and Allergy   Reference library

Carla C. Keirns

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...a Book of Formulas , pp. 9, 92–93. Chicago: Oleson & Co., 1891. Peumery, Jean-Jacques . Histoire Illustrèe de l’Asthme: de l’Antiquitè á Nos Jours . Paris: R. Dacosta, 1984. Strobel, Martine . Asthma bronchiale: die Geschichte seiner medikamentosen Therapie bis zum Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts . Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1994. Carla C....

Space Program

Space Program   Reference library

Michael H. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...rebounded, in part because of sheer good fortune. To make up for lost time, the agency gambled in December 1968 with Apollo 8 . Originally an orbital mission to test system hardware, the Apollo program directors decided instead to send it on a circumlunar voyage. The mission succeeded. Then, about five months before J.F.K.’s challenge expired, NASA launched Apollo 11 to the Moon. Events at first unfolded routinely. But on 20 July 1969 , as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin orbited in the lunar module, they faced a crisis. First, the onboard computer froze....

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...limiting abortion after 20 weeks following fertilization all contained similar limiting language: “Medical emergency means a condition which, in reasonable medical judgment, so complicates the medical condition of the pregnant woman as to necessitate the immediate abortion of her pregnancy to avert her death or for which a delay will create a serious risk of substantial and irreversible physical impairment of a major bodily function” [See Ala. Code §§ 26-23B-1–B-9 ( 2011 ), Idaho Code Ann. §§ 18-501–510 ( 2011 ), Ind. Code §§ 16-34-2-1–7 ( 2011 ), Kan. Stat....

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...the Western Hemisphere. Its crest length of 1,244 feet (379 meters) and spillway capacity of 270,000 cubic feet per second, or cfs (7645.5 cubic meters per second, or cms; 1 cubic foot of water is approximately equal to 7.5 gallons) are also impressive. Lake Mead, the reservoir behind the dam, can store nearly 29 million acre-feet of water (35.8 billion cubic meters). The reservoir provides water for municipal and industrial use, for irrigation, and for the 17 turbines at Hoover Dam, which annually supplies about 4 billion kilowatts of electricity. Glen Canyon...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...infusions from nonfederal sources. Over the course of the 1990s, the share of funding for basic research provided by industry actually grew from 10 percent to 25 percent of the national total, although basic research accounted for just 5 to 7 percent of total R&D expenditures by industry. Private funds accounted for 20 percent of national funding for basic research even after large infusions of federal funds during the opening decade of the new millennium. Most of those private funds went to basic research conducted at industrial facilities, but some 15 to 25...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...8ahT7q_Jqr26AGE0LGFCQ#v=onepage&q=Pollard%2C%202%2C286%2C571&f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2344108 . Rosheim, Mark E. Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. Ross, Philip E. “Westinghouse Cuts Interest in Robots.” New York Times Business Day , 11 June 1987. Accessed 20 January 2012 from ...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...and found that 41.8 percent affirmed belief in a personal God “to whom one may pray in expectation of receiving an answer.” Because he did not ask how many endorsed a less personal divinity, such as a God who did not answer intercessory prayers, it is impossible to determine the percentage of theists. Of the same group, 50.6 percent subscribed to the notion of individual human immortality. In general, the more distinguished the scientist, the greater the likelihood of disbelieving in these “two fundamental dogmas” of Christianity: only 27.7 percent of his...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...on a proprietary basis; that is, they were commercial businesses owned by the medical faculty, typically five to seven local physicians who aspired to make a profit from students fees: $3–5 to matriculate, $15 per ticket for specific courses, $5–10 to attend a dissection, and $15–20 to graduate. Although the proprietary schools sometimes obtained their charters from existing colleges and universities, they had no real academic or financial connection to the “parent” institution. Occasionally, a medical society or a hospital would launch a medicine school, and...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...budget from $8 million to $24 million ( NIH Almanac , Appropriations, Section 2). The budget doubled again in 1950 when it exceeded $50 million. That same year, the advocacy of Vannevar Bush culminated with the creation of a new federal agency, the NSF, designed to support basic science across all fields, including the biological sciences, by issuing grants to academic scientists. The budgets for both agencies grew exponentially over the next few decades. In 2012 , the NSF listed their annual budget as around $7 billion, which accounted for 20 percent of all...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...with incomes under $1,200, whereas rural families of all incomes had surgery at rates well below those of city dwellers. Much health care remained outside the orbit of the new, “scientific” medicine. In the 1930s, roughly 20 percent of “medical-care” expenditures went for patent medicines and medical supplies, whereas another 8 to 10 percent went to midwives, chiropractors, and other practitioners condemned by orthodox physicians. In most years, Americans spent at least as much on funeral expenses as on hospitals. From many perspectives, American...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Gerald N. Grob

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...20th Century . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999. Erhardt, Carl L. , and Joyce E. Berlin , eds. Mortality and Morbidity in the United States . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974. Greven, Philip J., Jr. Four Generations: Population, Land, and Family in Colonial Andover, Massachusetts . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1970. Grob, Gerald N. The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002. “Harvard Report on Cancer Prevention.” Cancer Causes and Control 7...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...rugged highlands; glassy orange soils confirmed the Moon had been volcanically active. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1 (launched in 1958 ), discovered the existence of the vast Van Allen radiation belt of charged particles around Earth. Sun-orbiting spacecraft Pioneer 6, 7, 8 , and 9 , launched in the 1960s, first explored the nature of the solar wind and interplanetary medium (subatomic particles and electromagnetic fields between the planets). A host of solar observatories launched between 1962 and 2010 revolutionized understanding about the...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...from setting priorities to making funding decisions, establishing project objectives, developing methodologies, gathering and analyzing data, evaluating results, securing patents, transferring ideas to markets, and drafting policies. Gendered Innovations has also developed some 20 case studies as concrete illustrations of how sex and gender analysis lead to new knowledge. The case study on stem-cell research offers one example of how analyzing sex can lead to important breakthroughs. Analyzing sex encouraged researchers to identify and report the sex of cell...

Higher Education and Science

Higher Education and Science   Reference library

Roger L. Geiger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...century marked the low point for American colleges and American science as well. The failure of republican universities left the colleges beset by poverty, stagnation, and rebellious youths; and the French Revolution and European wars isolated American science. In 1800 perhaps 20 positions existed for scientists in America. Before 1820 , American science was sustained by a handful of individuals. This low state was epitomized by the neglect of astronomy—the favored science of the colonial colleges. In the early nineteenth century only elementary textbooks...

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS   Reference library

Gerald M. Oppenheimer and Ronald Bayer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...hemophiliacs who had no other underlying disease but were dependent on factor VIII therapy raised the possibility that blood was a vehicle for a transmissible agent. That theory was strengthened by a CDC report of the appearance of immunodeficiency and opportunistic infection in a 20-month-old child who had previously received multiple transfusions from a donor later found to have AIDS. On March 4, 1983 , a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency report in the MMWR formalized a major shift in the conceptualization of the epidemic. The weight of the evidence,...

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