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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and Superlatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
769 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and or the disjunctive or in phrases such as the greater of A [ and ? or ?] B . Logic would seem to demand and to include all the options in the comparison before one is singled out as being the lesser , biggest , oldest , latter , etc. But in fact, since the early 20th century or has been about ten times as common in print as and with this type of phrasing. F. Absolute Adjectives. See adjectives (b)...

Danglers

Danglers   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,866 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it's incredible that another owner would want him as a head coach.” John McClain , “John McClain's NFL Report,” Houston Chron . , 7 Dec. 1997 , at 24. For an arguable example, see except ( b ) . F. Ending Sentences with Danglers. Traditionally, grammarians frowned on all danglers, but during the 20th century they generally loosened the strictures for a participial construction at the end of a sentence. Some early-20th-century grammarians might have disapproved of the following sentences, but such sentences have long been considered acceptable: • ...

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for most men, it is true that he who knows but cannot express what he knows might as well be ignorant.” That sentence opens Chapter 1 of Henry Weihofen 's Legal Writing Style (2d ed. 1980 )—a sentence that, ironically, is flanked by warnings against sexist language (pp. vii, 19–20). If Weihofen were writing today, no doubt he would express himself in neutral language. Throughout the English-speaking world, writers’ awareness of sexism rose most markedly during the 1980s. In September 1984 , the Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department in Canberra,...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to sleep. And he wanted to go home.” Second, the colon can introduce a list of items, often after expressions such as the following and as follows —e.g.: “The meetings are as follows: Central, Dec. 11 at the Municipal Auditorium, 5:30 p.m.–7:30 p.m.; South, Dec. 15 at the Mexican Cultural Institute, 5:30 p.m.–7:30 p.m.” Megan Kamerick , “Main Plaza Considered as Site of Museum on Mexico's History,” San Antonio Bus. J . , 12 Dec. 1997 , at 6. Third, the colon formally introduces a wholly self-contained quotation, whether short or long. If the quotation...

biennial

biennial   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...= occurring every two years. If we climb the numerical ladder, we have triennial (3), quadrennial (4), quinquennial (5), sexennial (6), septennial (7), octennial (8), novennial (9), decennial (10), vicennial (20), centennial (100), millennial (1, 000). See bi- & biannual...

today, tomorrow, tonight

today, tomorrow, tonight   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...today, tomorrow, tonight . Forms with a hyphen ( to-day , etc.) were listed as alternatives in editions of the COD down to and including the 7th edn of 1982 . They were dropped in the 8th edn of 1990 . The lingering of the hyphen in these words in much printed work of the 20c. is a very singular piece of conservatism, but now it has virtually disappeared from sight in all three...

adjective

adjective   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,350 words

...adjective . 1 As name of a part of speech. 2 Position of adjectives. 3 Comparison. 4 ‘Absolute’ adjectives. 5 Hyphenation. 6 Compound adjectives. 7 Adjectives used as adverbs. 8 Adjectives as nouns. 9 Transferred epithets. 1 As name of a part of speech. The italicized words in ‘a black cat’ and ‘a body politic’ , used as an addition to the name of a thing to describe the thing more fully or definitely, were usually called noun adjectives from the 15c. to the 18c. The term noun adjective (as distinguished from noun substantive...

adjective

adjective   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,285 words

... abundant recently published material / lawfully elected prime ministers / fully qualified lawyers . When the adverb does not end in - ly , however, a hyphen is normally required to reinforce its status: a well-known woman / an ill-defined topic . 7 compound adjectives. These have proliferated in the 20c, and are formed from combinations of noun + adjective ( accident-prone, acid-free, child-proof, computer-literate, machine-readable, user-friendly, water-insoluble ) noun + past participle ( computer-aided, custom-built, hand-operated ), noun + -ing ...

not

not   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,369 words

...not . 1 Normal uses. 2 Printing not or n’t . 3 not all/all…not. 4 not unnoticed, not ungrateful , etc. 5 Confusion caused by repeated not s. 6 Superfluous not . 7 not only …( but (also) ). 8 Not I or not me ? Case of following pronoun. 9 not but. 10 Unusual placement of not . 11 better not, best not. 12 whether or not. 1 Normal uses. These include the types (i) ‘auxiliary verb + not + bare infinitive’ ( I do not believe that Shelley could have written these lines; one should not rule out the possibility );...

biennial

biennial   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...= occurring every two years. If we climb the numerical ladder, we have triennial (3), quadrennial (4), quinquennial (5), sexennial (6), septennial (7), octennial (8), novennial (9), decennial (10), vicennial (20), centennial (100), millennial (1,000). See numerical prefixes ; see also bi- & biannual...

medley

medley   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
140 words

..., pronounced like— melody (= a tune). The error is especially common with a dish that became popular in the late 20th century: fruit medley . E.g.: • “The menu includes a Caesar salad, Jamaican jerk chicken, Caribbean pasta with shrimp sauce, tropical fruit melody [read medley ], steamed vegetables, island peach crepes, tea and coffee.” Kathryn Straach , “Name Your Vehicle for Texas Victuals,” Dallas Morning News , 8 June 1997 , at G7. • “Customers can choose from a variety of favorites including English toffee, fruit melody [read medley ], red...

helpmate

helpmate   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
240 words

...formed” (as the OED puts it) from the two words help and meet in Genesis: “an help meet for him” (Genesis 2:18, 20), in which meet is really an adjective meaning “suitable.” Some writers still use helpmeet —e.g.: “Naturally, I am a loyal and patient helpmeet whose only reward is a smile on the lips of my beloved—a smile, and ceaseless extravagant praise.” Jon Carroll , “Movie at Our House,” S.F. Chron . , 3 Sept. 1996 , at D8. But meet was widely misunderstood as mate , and the form helpmate sprang up and has been predominant since the 18th...

decisioning

decisioning   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
306 words

...• “David Diaz (139) became an Olympian by decisioning Zabdiel Judah.” Michael Holley , “Mesi Win a Stunner: Hartford's Clay-Bey Upset at US Boxoffs,” Boston Globe , 20 Apr. 1996 , at 82. • “Germany's Ralf Rocchigiani (39–77) successfully defended his WBO cruiserweight title for the fourth time, decisioning Nigeria's Bashiru Ali (41–14) in Essen, Germany.” “U.S. Tops Japan for 2–0 Lead in Federation Cup,” Palm Beach Post , 14 July 1996 , at C2. • “Hector Camacho looked so bad in decisioning Arturo Nina the other night, it makes it a lock that...

diploma

diploma   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
195 words

...at 20. • “For many workers with only a high school degree [read diploma ], the pay can be transformative.” Johnny Dwyer , “This Hammer for Hire,” N.Y. Times , 4 Feb. 2007 , § 14, at 1. • “Evidence of the dramatic link between education and income is seen in the 75 percent gap between the average wages of college graduates and high school graduates and the 42 percent gap between those with high school degrees [read diplomas ] and those without them, he said.” Patrice Hill , “Bernanke Suggests Job Skills to Combat Inequality,” Wash. Times , 7 Feb....

nicety

nicety   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
210 words

...Look's New Spa Wants Its Clients to Relax,” Ariz. Daily Star , 4 Dec. 1996 , at E6. • “For luminaries like . . . Barbra Streisand and others, there are certain niceties that the studios will automatically provide.” Dan Cox , “They Asked for What?” Newsday (N.Y.), 8 July 1997 , at B7. • “Findings like those cast [early childhood family education] not as a nicety for the affluent or a leg up for the poor, but as an essential component of general public education.” Editorial, “ECFE Cuts Are a Step Backward,” Star Trib . (Minneapolis), 27 Mar. 2003 ,...

congeries

congeries   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
362 words

...VU,” N.Y. Times , 20 Feb. 1983 , § 8, at 1. • “When a congerie [read congeries ] of women's organizations announced that this was the ‘Year of the Woman’ and that they were going to do their utmost to get more women into Congress, the media instantly took up the cry.” Richard Grenier , “Yearning to Look Down on Someone,” Wash. Times , 18 July 1992 , at C3. • “It is already a congery [read congeries ] of standard practices that constitutes assisted suicide or euthanasia in disguise.” William Joseph Buckley et al., “Ethics of Palliative Sedation and...

appraise

appraise   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
267 words

...Burton et al., “NationsBank's $8.7 Billion Acquisition Matches CEO's Drive,” Commercial Appeal (Memphis), 1 Sept. 1996 , at C1. • “Bandidos could be appraised [read apprised ] of potential customers through Morse code.” Larry Habegger & Natanya Pearlman , Central America: True Stories 130 ( 2002 ). Occasionally, the opposite mistake occurs—e.g.: “The maximum loan-to-value is the percentage of the apprised [read appraised ] value of the house the lender will finance.” “Fall Mortgage News,” Seattle Times , 20 Oct. 1996 , at G1. The needless...

avail

avail   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
669 words

...Alabama not at all [read didn't help Alabama at all ].” Mark Bradley , “Florida 45, Alabama 30,” Atlanta J.-Const . , 8 Dec. 1996 , at E4. Often simpler words also better express sense 1—e.g.: “Festival-goers availed [read helped ] themselves to a buffet and a bellyful of ragtime, jazz standards and vaudeville classics.” Michael Kuelker , “Ragtime Fest Opens with 6-Hour Session,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch , 2 Sept. 1995 , at D7. In that sentence, avail was also mistakenly matched with to rather than of . Language-Change Index ✳to be availed ...

Democrat

Democrat   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
300 words

...on budget and other issues.” Editorial, “Our Views,” Olympian (Olympia, Wash.), 7 Dec. 2002 , at A7. In politics, of course, this type of semantic jockeying is a practice without end, as this columnist well knows: “Talk radio is rewriting the political language. . . . Environmentalists are wackos. The Democratic Party is the Democrat Party. Taxation is theft.” Tom Teepen , “Talk Radio Isn't Just Talk,” Chattanooga Times/Chattanooga Free Press , 29 Nov. 2002 , at B8. And if Republic could somehow be loaded with pejorative connotations, you can be...

Native American

Native American   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
453 words

... Salt Lake Trib . , 7 Feb. 2001 , at D2. • “Hundreds of high schools and colleges have dropped their Indian symbols over the past 30 years as many indigenous American groups and their members have called for sports teams to drop the names.” David McKay Wilson , “Rules Due on School Mascots,” J. News (Westchester Co., N.Y.), 3 June 2002 , at B1. • “Bartolome de Las Casas . . . preached justice for indigenous Americans in the 16th century.” Stephanie Nichols , “Shrine Will Promote Understanding,” Commercial Appeal (Memphis), 8 Aug. 2002 , Neighbors...

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