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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and Superlatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
769 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and or the disjunctive or in phrases such as the greater of A [ and ? or ?] B . Logic would seem to demand and to include all the options in the comparison before one is singled out as being the lesser , biggest , oldest , latter , etc. But in fact, since the early 20th century or has been about ten times as common in print as and with this type of phrasing. F. Absolute Adjectives. See adjectives (b)...

Danglers

Danglers   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,866 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it's incredible that another owner would want him as a head coach.” John McClain , “John McClain's NFL Report,” Houston Chron . , 7 Dec. 1997 , at 24. For an arguable example, see except ( b ) . F. Ending Sentences with Danglers. Traditionally, grammarians frowned on all danglers, but during the 20th century they generally loosened the strictures for a participial construction at the end of a sentence. Some early-20th-century grammarians might have disapproved of the following sentences, but such sentences have long been considered acceptable: • ...

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for most men, it is true that he who knows but cannot express what he knows might as well be ignorant.” That sentence opens Chapter 1 of Henry Weihofen 's Legal Writing Style (2d ed. 1980 )—a sentence that, ironically, is flanked by warnings against sexist language (pp. vii, 19–20). If Weihofen were writing today, no doubt he would express himself in neutral language. Throughout the English-speaking world, writers’ awareness of sexism rose most markedly during the 1980s. In September 1984 , the Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department in Canberra,...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to sleep. And he wanted to go home.” Second, the colon can introduce a list of items, often after expressions such as the following and as follows —e.g.: “The meetings are as follows: Central, Dec. 11 at the Municipal Auditorium, 5:30 p.m.–7:30 p.m.; South, Dec. 15 at the Mexican Cultural Institute, 5:30 p.m.–7:30 p.m.” Megan Kamerick , “Main Plaza Considered as Site of Museum on Mexico's History,” San Antonio Bus. J . , 12 Dec. 1997 , at 6. Third, the colon formally introduces a wholly self-contained quotation, whether short or long. If the quotation...

Hebrew rhetoric

Hebrew rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,596 words

...5.1–8; 51:34–45), are similar to those in Lamentations (1–2). Reflecting the homiletical prose of Deuteronomy, Jeremiah makes liberal use of the inclusio in both prose (7.3–7, 8–11, 12–14) and poetic (3.1–5; 20.7–10) oracles, also in his defense before the court (26.12–15): Yahweh sent me to prophesy against this house and against this city — all the things that you have heard…(26.12) …for in truth Yahweh sent me to you to speak in your ears all these things (26.15) The inclusio frames oracles by the prophetess Huldah ( 2 Kgs . 22.16–20) and by...

Color

Color   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,511 words

... color —not smeared on with makeup ( fucus ), but infused with blood/vitality ( sanguis )” (3.199, cf. Brutus 162; De optimo genere oratorum 8). In Orator 42, eloquence is said to be “raised upon the nourishment” provided by rhetorical exercises in school and “derives its color and strength” from them. This metaphor of speech (or text)-as-body also persists into the imperial age (cf. Inst . 8 pr. 18–20, 8.3.6). Perhaps related is the common use of color to mean directly the “overall complexion” or “style” or “tone” of speaking. Seneca says that...

Credibility

Credibility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,660 words

...about the preoccupation of orators and writers of rhetorical handbooks with a rhetorical strategy that relies mostly on the speaker's ability to influence the audience's emotions (1.1.1354b20). In his own rhetorical theory, he limits the role of emotions by adding, and assigning greater importance to, two other modes of persuasion: the rhetorical syllogism or enthymeme (1355a7), and the character ( ēthos ) of the speaker, which he calls the most important mode of persuasion (1.2.1356a13)—an assessment still cited by Quintilian ( c.35–100 ce ; 5.12.9). [ See ...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...should describe his upbringing and education, his character, and his physical attributes, dividing the praise according to each of the subject's virtues—courage, justice, modesty, and so on, and account for his use of these qualities and attributes ( Herennium 3.7.13–3.8.15; Quintilian 3.7.10–18). Quintilian adds that the orator might also on occasion treat the honors granted to his subject after his life to demonstrate his contribution to his community. Where blame is the aim of the speech, the orator does the exact opposite, showing that the subject has...

History

History   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,099 words

...contemporary with Sallust, complained about the number and length of the speeches that some historians inserted into their works, saying that they cause too great an interruption of the narrative (20.1.1–2.3). The classic example of a speechifying historian is Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote in Greek and published the first book of his Roman Antiquities in 7 bce . Dionysius was also a literary critic, and in his essay On Thucydides (18.34–48), he makes it quite clear that such speeches were understood by their readers to be compositions by the...

Secular piety

Secular piety   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,076 words

.... Permanence and Change . Berkeley, 1984. First published 1935. Burke, Kenneth . Attitudes toward History . Boston, 1961. First published 1937. Burke, Kenneth . A Rhetoric of Motives . Berkeley, 1984. First published 1950. Craig, Edward ed., Encyclopedia of Philosophy , vols. 7, 8. New York, 1998. Eliade, Mircea ed., The Encyclopedia of Religion , vols. 11, 13. New York, 1987. Frankel, Marvin E. “Faith and Freedom.” In Faith and Freedom: Religious Liberty in America . New York, 1994. Hastings, James . Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , vol. 10. New...

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...it should be” ( 1968 , p. 6). The audience is distinguished from “mere hearers and readers” by their capacities “of being influenced by discourse and of being mediators of change” ( 1968 , p. 8). Constraints are such things as “persons, events, objects, and relations” that “have the power to constrain decision and action needed to modify the exigence” ( 1968 , p. 8). Bitzer's influential model has elicited multifarious responses, including emulation, modification, and rejection (cf., among many others, Pomeroy , 1972 ; Burke , 1973 ; Vatz , 1973 ; ...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...inspires emotional reactions and reverence among visitors despite wide variance among their interpretations of its meaning. Fowler, Roger . “Ambiguity.” In A Dictionary of Modern Critical Terms , rev. ed., pp. 78. New York, 1987. Hufford, Roger . “ The Dimensions of an Idea: Ambiguity Defined. ” Today's Speech 14 (April 1966), pp. 4–8. Attempts to rehabilitate “ambiguity” as a legitimate persuasive (versus philosophical) strategy; distinguishes ethical and unethical rhetorical uses based on whether or not the rhetor's concern for the auditors'...

Reception theory

Reception theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,991 words

...and the Imaginary. ” New Literary History 11 (1979), pp. 1–20. Jauss, Hans Robert . “ Paradigmawechsel in der Literaturwissenschaft. ” Linguistische Berichte 3 (1969), pp. 44–56. Jauss, Hans Robert . Kleine Apologie der ästhetischer Erfahrung . Konstanzer Universitätsreden 59. Constance, Germany, 1972. Jauss, Hans Robert . Toward an Aesthetic of Reception . Theory and History of Literature 2. Minneapolis, 1982. Naumann, Manfred . “ Das Dilemma der ‘Rezeptionsästhetik.’  ” Poetica 8 (1976), pp. 451–466. Naumann, Manfred et al. ...

Stasis

Stasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,622 words

.... “ Zur Erklärung und Geschichte der Staseislehre des Hermagoras von Temnos. ” Philologus 108 (1964), pp. 80–101. Braet, Antoine C. “ Variationen zur Statuslehre von Hermagoras bei Cicero. ” Rhetorica 7 (1989), pp. 239–259. Braet, Antoine . “ The Classical Doctrine of Status and the Rhetorical Theory of Argumentation. ” Philosophy and Rhetoric 20 (1987), pp. 79–93. Braet, Antoine . De klassieke statusleer in modern perspectief. Een historisch-systematische bijdrage tot de argumentatieleer . Groningen, The Netherlands, 1984. Calboli Montefusco, Lucia ....

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...is to be modified to accommodate inventio . As Caplan observes, this pattern of arrangement is a departure from the scheme prescribed by Aristotle in his Rhetoric and is closer to the Stoic format that included refutation, which is here labeled confutatio (8–9, n.a; Diogenes Laertius 7.43). Another important feature of arrangement in the Rhetorica ad Herennium is the incorporation (and Latinization) of the Greek concept of stasis , or identification of the essential disagreement, into the structure of the argument, principally in the confirmatio ...

Orality and literacy

Orality and literacy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,205 words

...in their fieldwork, with the internal evidence of literary traditions. It is primarily their methodology that we see reflected in the ongoing academic usage of such terms as orality and oral theory . (On the pitfalls of using the term oral theory , see Nagy , 1996 , pp. 19–20). The systematic comparatism of Parry and Lord required rigorous empiricism in analyzing the internal evidence of the living oral traditions—in their case, the South Slavic evidence—which was to be compared with the textual evidence of Homer. To be sure, there have also been other...

Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,582 words

...( Jr . 24.7). In the Old Testament, the use of the term heart is generally associated by rabbinic scholars with moral consciousness or “conscience” and the emotions such as fear, guilt, joy, and love that oftentimes come with it. In returning God's favor of acknowledgment, we ought to be, at the very least, conscientious as we try to “know together” (Gk. sun-eidēsis; Lat. conscientia ) with God and others all that is right, true, good, and just. In the New Testament, this heartfelt way of knowing is emphasized by the Apostle Paul ( 1 Cor . 8–10) when...

Trivium

Trivium   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,422 words

...for the study of rhetoric, which is the art of speaking well. Speaking correctly entailed a knowledge of the Latin grammatical system, which Quintilian sketches out (1.4–7). But enarratio poetarum entails not only reading and interpretation, but also exercises in composition, including imitation of literary models, and a beginning mastery of tropes and figures of speech (1.8). [ See Figures of speech ; and Imitation .] It is in this area of study, as Quintilian warns defensively (1.9; 2.1; 2.5), that the boundaries between grammar and rhetoric need...

Ēthos

Ēthos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,506 words

...of Christian authority; on the one hand, it is learned and implicitly Ciceronian—in most respects, a baptized version of the Roman vir bonus —on the other hand, it is charismatic, erupting in extemporaneous, Spirit-filled speech. Elsewhere (4.32) Augustine observes ( Mt . 10.19–20): “Take no thought how or what to speak: for it shall be given you in that hour what to speak. For it is not you that speak, but the Spirit of your father that speaketh in you.” Passages such as this confound classical notions of ēthos , since the “speaker” both is, and is not,...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
12,836 words

...to think and another to speak” (3.16.59–60). Cicero's remedy for this separation is to urge the orator to take up philosophy, “the creator and mother, as it were, of all the reputable arts” (1.3.9), and to study ethics, dialectic, and “the entire field of practical philosophy” (3.20.76). Cicero, who had studied in Athens at the Middle Academy, practiced what he preached, for his rhetorical works are closely related to the treatises in which he popularized Greek philosophy: De officiis (On Duties, largely derived from Panaetius), De finibus bonorum et...

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