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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

surplus production

surplus production   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1976–80 326.0 285.7 40.3 12 1981–85 333.6 280.7 52.8 16 1986–90 292.8 237.0 55.8 19 1991–95 261.3 222.7 38.6 15 1996 272.5 223.2 49.3 18 1997 264.4 223.5 40.9 15 1998 262.1 227.8 34.4 13 1999 281.2 225.1 56.1 20 2000 280.0 226.6 53.4 19 2001 266.6 226.9 39.7 15 2002 257.8 228.6 29.2 11 2003 266.7 234.7 32.0 12 2004 296.4 237.6 58.8 20 2005 278.0 236.9 41.1 15 2006 282.6 244.7 37.9 13 2007 267.8 252.4 15.4 6 2008 268.7 248.7 20.0 7 2009 272.2 240.9 31.3 11 2010 264.3 240.3 24.0 9 2011 267.4 241.2 26.2 10 2012 254.7 241.2 13.5 5 2013 278.6 238.7 39.9 14 Note:...

Istrian

Istrian   Reference library

Samir Kalit

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...average, for two hundred days. Pramenka have adapted to the local ecological conditions and particularly to the flora available for grazing, therefore producing milk of exceptional quality. Istrian cheese is characterized by a cylindrical shape, 7 to 8 inches (18 to 20 centimeters) in diameter and 2.8 to 3.5 inches (7 to 9 centimeters) in height. Only rennet is added to the milk, without using starters. Therefore, the acidification that occurs, as well as the specific flavor of the cheese, is caused by natural, non-starter lactic acid bacteria that originates...

Trappist breweries

Trappist breweries   Reference library

Derek Walsh

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Ypres, 10 km from the French border, and produces three beers: Blond (5.8% ABV), 8 (8% ABV), and 12 (10.2% ABV). They are only available in bottles sold in wooden crates at the abbey gate. Chimay, arguably the most famous of the seven Trappist breweries, is located south of Charleroi, 1 km from the French border, and produces four beers: Dorée (4.8% ABV; not for commercial sale), Rouge (7% ABV), Tripel (8% ABV), and Bleue (9% ABV). Their beers are transferred by tank truck to Baileux, 8 km away, for bottling. The Koningshoeven abbey and brewery, located close...

Casciotta d’Urbino

Casciotta d’Urbino   Reference library

Marta Bertolino

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...and a thin rind (1 milimeter). It is about 2–3 inches (5–7 centimeters) high, 5–6 inches (12–16 centimeters) in diameter, and weighs 1.7–2.6 pounds (0.8–1.2 kilograms). The interior paste is straw-white in color, soft, and friable, with small holes and a sweet taste. Its largest component (70–80 percent) is whole ewe’s milk, mixed with a smaller amount (20–30 percent) of whole cow’s milk, coming from two milkings. The raw milk is coagulated at 95°F (35°C) using liquid and/or powdered calf rennet within 20–30 minutes. After the coagulum is cut into pieces the...

couching

couching   Reference library

Thomas Kraus-Weyermann

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A couch retains the temperature of the grain and thus accelerates the uptake of surface water after the wet transfer from the steep. This promotes the completion of chitting and the start of germination. See chitting and germination . The couch is anywhere from 20 to 90 cm high (about 8 inches to 3 feet) and often placed in a rigid, rectangular structure with a flat bottom called a couch frame. In cold weather, couching can last 24 hours or longer, and the couch is often covered with sacks or a tarpaulin to maintain the proper temperature. Once chitting...

Taleggio

Taleggio   Reference library

Milena Brasca

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...characteristics are in fact strictly correlated with the biochemical modifications occurring during the ripening process from the surface of the cheese to the inside, called “centripetal maturation.” This square cheese is 78 inches (18–20 centimeters) wide, about 1.5–3 inches (4–7 centimeters) high, and weighs 3.7–4.8 pounds (1.7–2.2 kilograms). The rind is soft and thin with a natural pinkish-red color, and may have irregular spots of gray-green mold. The number of the dairy plant is impressed on one side. Inside, Taleggio is white to straw yellow, with...

pH

pH   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...performance in the fermenter, as well as the quality of the finished beer. Enzymes perform at their peak only within narrow pH ranges (optima): Gum-converting endo-beta-glucanases have a pH optimum of 4.7 to 5; protein-converting endopeptidase and carboxypeptidase are at 5 to 5.2; and starch-converting beta- and alpha-amylase are at 5.4 to 5.6 and 5.6 to 5.8, respectively. In mashes that are too acidic or too alkaline, enzyme activity is impaired and can even stop. Most mashes, therefore, are kept at a compromise pH range close to 5.4 to 5.6, which is also...

flip-top

flip-top   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

.... vol 15, no 2. http://hbd.org/mbas/pdf/feb08.pdf (accessed January 27, 2011). Nicolai Fritzner . http://books.google.com/books?id=0hEzAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA2043&lpg=PA2043&dq=Nicolai+Fritzner&source=bl&ots=tg-TI8rpmI&sig=4knasu-VtJmg6Q-17HGP8iAjfaE&hl=en&ei=BpxBTZj5HMT68Ab2v6GzAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&sqi=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Nicolai%20Fritzner&f=false/ (accessed January 27, 2011). Horst...

Goed sakken

Goed sakken   Reference library

Derek Walsh

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...brewer was using 45.5 kg (100 lb) of grain in total, the technique looked like this: the first sack (60% of the total grain bill) was called the goed sakken and would be composed of 20.9 kg (46 lb) malted barley, 3.6 kg (8 lb) oats, and 2.7 kg (6 lb) unmalted wheat. The second (remaining 40% of the grain bill) was called the “vet sakken” (“fat sacks”) and would be composed of 1.8 kg (4 lb) malted barley and 16.4 kg (36 lb) unmalted wheat. Presumably the vet sakken, lacking much malt enzyme to convert the wheat starches into sugars, was rather difficult to deal...

Raschera

Raschera   Reference library

Giuseppe Zeppa

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...without a brine and ripened for at least one month (per disciplinare). Cylindrical Raschera has a diameter of 12–16 inches (30–40 centimeters), a convex edge of 3–4 inches (7–9 centimeters), and a weight of 15–20 pounds (7–9 kilograms) while the square shape has a side of 12–16 inches (30–40 centimeters), a straight edge of (5–6 inches) (12–15 centimeters), and a weight of 18–11 pounds (8–10 kilograms). The rind is thin, elastic, and regular, reddish-gray with red patches. The paste is white or ivory with small and sparse eyes, elastic, and consistent. The...

Yakima Valley hop region

Yakima Valley hop region   Reference library

Thomas Shellhammer and Val Peacock

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
449 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at roughly 46 north latitude. This region experiences long days of up to 16 h of sunlight during the summer months, moderate summer temperatures with an average high of 31°C (87°F), and cold winters with an average low of –7°C (20°F). Because the region is also in the rain shadow of the Cascade Range, rainfall is very light, averaging 21 cm (8 inches) per year, which translates into less than 2 cm per month. Rain in the summer months is rare. Although the name “Yakima” is now iconic among American brewers and beer enthusiasts, it is not a natural hop-growing...

bottle sizes

bottle sizes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10 litres (and wine may be served in 18.7-cl bottles, sometimes referred to as ‘splits’, aboard trains, planes, and the like). Sparkling wine bottles come in 12.5-, 20-, 37.5- and 75-cl and 1.5-, 3-, 4.5-, 6- and 9-litre capacities. The larger-sized bottles, some of them no longer in production, have different names in different regions. Capacity (l) Bordeaux Champagne/Burgundy 1.5 (2 bottles) magnum magnum 2.25 (3 bottles) Marie-Jeanne not found 3 (4 bottles) double magnum Jéroboam 4.5 (6 bottles) Jéroboam * Rehoboam 6 (8 bottles)...

Fiore Sicano

Fiore Sicano   Reference library

Ivana Piccitto

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...settling of molds. This cheese is characterized by a buttery and floral flavor and a finishing hint of mushroom taste, with a slightly acidic and bitter aftertaste. The shape is cylindrical with flat sides, a diameter of 78 inches (18–20 centimeters) and height of  2–2½ inches (4–6 centimeters). The weight is approximately 3–4 pounds (1.5–1.8 kilograms). The best time for consumption is within four to six months of aging. See also sicily . Campo, Patrizia , and Giuseppe Licitra . Historical Sicilian Cheeses . Ragusa, Italy: CoRFiLaC Press, 2006....

Bleu d’Auvergne

Bleu d’Auvergne   Reference library

Jean-Louis Galvaing

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...and enable the blue mold to develop. The cheese then spends a minimum of four weeks in the cellars at 45–48°F (7–9°C) to mature and is then packaged in a sheet of foil and kept in cold storage. See draining ; dry salting ; needles ; and maturing . Twenty-one to 26 quarts (20 to 25 liters) of milk are necessary to obtain a flat cylinder shape of about 8 inches (20 centimeters) in diameter, 3–4 inches (8–10 centimeters) high, and weighing between 4–7 pounds (2–3 kilograms). The rind is clean, with no wetting or exudation and is slightly gray. The product is...

manna

manna   Reference library

Edan Dekel

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of their noses (Numbers 11:4–20). Both the crime and the punishment highlight the principle that too much of a good thing can lead to dissatisfaction. The manna stopped appearing as miraculously as it had begun once the Israelites reached their Promised Land. Its sustaining power was commemorated by the eternal preservation of one portion in a jar placed in front of the Ark of the Covenant (Exodus 16:34–35; see Hebrews 9:4), as well as by later references to its demonstration of God’s nourishing spirit (Deuteronomy 8:3; Nehemiah 9:20; see John 6:31). Early...

Swiss cheese

Swiss cheese   Reference library

David Gibbons

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,159 words

... 2014 and 31.9 million pounds (14.5 million kilograms) in 2015 . Norway led the way, providing 13.8 and 12.3 million pounds (6.3 and 5.6 million kilograms) for each year, followed by Finland and Germany, with 7.7 and 8.8 million pounds (3.5 and 4.0 million kilograms), and 7.3 and 9.2 million pounds (3.3 and 4.2 million kilograms), respectively. Switzerland, ironically, supplied only the fourth-largest amount of Swiss cheese to the United States, with about 7.7 million pounds (3.5 million kilograms) imported in each of those years. Bucher, Anne , and ...

Valle d’Aosta Fromadzo

Valle d’Aosta Fromadzo   Reference library

Meryl S. Rosofsky

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...cheese, shading toward gray with a reddish cast as it matures. The cheese itself is initially ivory-colored, deepening to yellow after aging, with a firm texture and small or medium-size eyes. Weighing 2–15 pounds (1–7 kilograms), Valle d’Aosta Fromadzo is cylindrical in shape, about 6–12 inches (15–30 centimeters) in diameter and 2–8 inches (5–20 centimeters) high. The mild flavor of the young cheese becomes more pronounced, pungent, and lightly salty with aging. Valle d’Aosta Fromadzo has a milky fragrance, enhanced by the aroma of mountain flowers and...

block-forming towers

block-forming towers   Reference library

John A. Partridge

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...use of block-forming towers can make the process of pressing the curds continuous as well, simplify the cleaning process, and produce a more consistent, better quality cheese. A vacuum-driven air conveyor transports the curds to the top of a tower ranging in height from 20 to 26 feet (6 to 8 meters). The curds fall into a central column that tapers down to the 11 × 14 inch (28 × 35.5 centimeter) cross-section of the traditional 40-pound (18-kilogram) block. The central column is perforated to allow the removal of gases and whey from the curds as they are...

swimming crabs

swimming crabs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...regarded by many experts as varieties of the same species; but fishermen certainly have different names for them and it may be that there are other valid species such as S. paramamosain , the Green mud crab. ◆ Portunus pelagicus , another large swimming crab (carapace up to 20 cm/8" across), light blue with white spots (male) or brown with white spots (female). Makes good eating, also in the softshell state. The Thai name, pu ma , means horse crab; whereas the Thai call P. sanguinolentus , a close relation with three distinctive purple spots on a...

Köstritzer Schwarzbierbrauerei

Köstritzer Schwarzbierbrauerei   Reference library

Conrad Seidl

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...remained independent, surviving World War II and 40 years under communist East German rule before Privatbrauerei Theobald Simon, better known as “Bitburger,” finally acquired the brewery in 1991. By that time only 7% of the Köstritzer’s output was schwarzbier, but Bitburger decided to distribute the beer nationally and it has grown since. At 4.8% ABV, the beer’s dark brown color belies an easygoing character showcasing caramel flavors and a hint of smoky, coffee-like roast with very little bite. Conrad...

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