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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Darwinism

Darwinism  

The theory of evolution by natural selection, often used incorrectly as a synonym for the theory of evolution itself. The term ‘neo-Darwinism’ is often used to denote the ‘new synthesis’ (i.e. ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
suicide

suicide  

The act of intentionally ending one's own life. A suicide pact is an agreement between two (or more) people to commit suicide together. See also euthanasia.
Kings, First and Second Books of

Kings, First and Second Books of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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... 12.28b–31 , and 22.28–31 and 2 Kings 5.26 ; 6.32 ; 7.8–10 , 20 ; 8.1–5 ; 9.1–2 ; 10.19–21 fragments 18–94 are unidentified. The text of 2 Kings 7.208.5 in 6QKings is sometimes shorter than the Masoretic Text ( Baillet , 1962 ). Furthermore, three fragments of the Book of the Kings (4Q235) in the Nabatean script have been preserved. [See Nabatean .] The Isaiah scrolls also have a bearing on the text of Kings in the passages they have in common ( Is. 36.1–39.8 , 2 Kgs. 18.13–20.19 ). Isaiah a from Cave 1 at Qumran (1QIsa a ) preserves...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.25/20 bce–c.50)   Reference library

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...xiv.12–17 Winter and Summer Clothes Cf.86 8.11.12 38–39 Cf. 125 Food 86, 91 8.11.5, 10–11 34–37 130–33, 139 1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22 Treatment of the Ill 87 8.11.13 Cf. CD vi.20–21; xiv.12–17 Treatment of the Elderly 87 8.11.13 CD xiv.12–17; cf. vi.20–21 Long-lived 8.11.13 151 Exclusive Male Membership 8.11.14–17 (2, 32–33, 68, 72, 83–89) 120–21 (160–61) 21 (CD iv.19–v.2; v.5–11; vii.6–9; xii.1–2; xvi.10–12; 1QM 7.4–5; 1Q28a i.4–5, 8–11; 11Q19–11Q20 lvii.15–19) Reputation 88–91 8.11.18 The Philonic Corpus. Philo wrote more than seventy treatises:...

Biblical Chronology

Biblical Chronology   Reference library

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...the rulers of Israel after Joshua's death: Cush-rishathaim (8 years; Jgs. 3.8 ), Othniel (40 years; Jgs. 3.9–11 ), Eglon (18 years; Jgs. 3.12–14 ), Ehud (80 years; Jgs. 3.16–30 ), Shamgar ( Jgs. 3.31 ). Fragment 5 also details the period of the dominance of the Midianites (7 years; Jgs. 6.1–10 ), Gideon (40 years; Jgs. 8.28 ), Thola (23 years, Jgs. 10.1–2 ); Abimelech is omitted. Fragment 7 deals with Jabin 's twenty years ( Jgs. 4.2 ), followed by Deborah 's forty years ( Jgs. 4–16 ; 5.31 ) or Abdon 's eight years (...

Berakhot

Berakhot   Reference library

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...1QRule of the Community] 1QS i.16–iii.12). [See Rule of the Community .] The sequence of the covenantal ceremony may have been as follows: a communal confession (4Q286 1.i.78 [and frg. 9?]); a series of blessings addressed to God (4Q286 1.ii–7.i and 4Q287 1–5); a series of curses against Belial and his lot (4Q286 7.ii [= 4Q287 6] and 4Q287 7–10); a series of laws (4Q286 20ab [= 4Q288 1] and 4Q286 13, 14, 15, 17ab); liturgy of expelling the willful sinner from the community (4Q289 [and 4Q286 9?]); and the conclusion of the ceremony (4Q290). Generally...

Ben Sira, Book of

Ben Sira, Book of   Reference library

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...7 ; 5.9–13 ; 6.18b ; 6.19 ; 6.28 ; 6.35 ; 7.1 ; 7.2 ; 7.4 ; 7.6 ; 7.17 ; 7.20 ; 7.21 ; 7.23–25 ; 18.31b–19.3b ; 20.5–7 ; 20.13 ; 20.22–23 ; 25.8 ; 25.13 ; 25.17–24 ; 26.1–3 ; 26.13 ; 26.15–17 ; 25.8 ; 25.20–21 ; 36.27–31 ; 37.19 ; 37.22 ; 37.24 ; 37.26 ; 41.16 MS D, 36.29–38.1a MS E, 32.16–34.1 MS F, 31.24–32.7 ; 32.12–33.8 More recently portions of the Hebrew text were found among the discoveries at Qumran and Masada. Small fragments from Cave 2 at Qumran (2Q18) preserve a few words from Ben Sira 6.14–15 (or 1.19–20 )...

Repentance

Repentance   Reference library

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...Bar. 1.13–2.12; Ad. Est. 4.78; Sg. of 3 5–9; Tb. 3.2–5; Ps. Sol. 8.29–34, 9.1–7). Among the prayers from Qumran see Words of the Luminaries a (4Q504 1–2.ii.15, iii.15–20, v.17–21), Festival Prayers a (4Q507 1), liturgical work 4Q393 (1–2.ii.1–5), 1QHodayot a (1QH iv.34–35, xvi 6), Noncanonical Psalms B (4Q381 33.9, 45.1–2), Paraphrase of Kings et al. (4Q382 13.1–2), and Ritual of Purification (4Q512 34.15–16, frag. 28 line 4). 1 Baruch 1.13–14 recommends that one recite aloud a prayer of confession in the house of the Lord “on the days of the...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

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...(see xi.20–37 [iii.19–36]; xiii.7–21 [v.5–19]). In certain cases, the three lines manifest a perceptible degree of syntactic and/or semantic equivalence (xiii.14–15 [v.12–13]; xv.31 [vii.28]; xix.7–18 [xi.4–5]). In many other instances, two of the three lines display a closer correspondence to each other than to the third line, and often it is the second and third lines that exhibit a higher degree of parallelism (x.27–29 [ii.25–26]; xiii.11–12 [v.9–10]; xix.6–7, 11–12 [xi.3–4, 8–9; exceptions: xiii.9–10, 13–15 [v.78, 11–12]; xix.9–10 [xi.78]). In...

James, Letter Of

James, Letter Of   Reference library

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...The term “way” ( Jas. 5.19–20 ) is used of ethical and halakhic teaching from Proverbs 4.14 through to the Didache (cf. 1QS iii.13–iv.26, viii.15). The characteristics of wisdom ( Jas. 3.14 ) are echoed in several Jewish texts ( Prv. 8 ; Wis. 7 ; cf. 1QS iv.3–8). The description of the teacher ( Jas. 3.1 ) is an echo of the standard Jewish role of both priest and sage; at Qumran this role is variously taken up by both mevaqqer (“guardian”; CD xiii.78) and maskil (“wise teacher”; 1QS ix.12–20). James 2.10 insists on the keeping...

Q Source

Q Source   Reference library

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... 6.20–21 , 9.59–10.16 , 12.33–34 pars.; cf. the self-reference of the Qumran community to themselves as the “poor” (for example, Pesher Habakkuk [1QpHab xii.3, 6, 10] or in Pesher Psalms a on Psalm 37 [4Q171 2.8–9, 3.9–10] as well as the existence of the community itself). On the other hand, the similarities should not be overplayed; Q Christians did not apparently form themselves into a separate community, as at Qumran, and Qumran literature tends to use the vocabulary of “poor” in a more “religious” sense than a socioeconomic one (as in Lk. 6.20 )....

Judges, Book Of

Judges, Book Of   Reference library

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...In six instances of a total of ten variant readings, the manuscript goes its own way, disagreeing with the Masoretic Text and the Greek tradition. [See Septuagint .] It is the only extant witness that does not include Judges 6.7–10 , although two Hebrew medieval manuscripts and the Septuagint B text also omit verse 7a. Verses 8 through 10 generally have been recognized by modern critics as a literary insertion, attributed in the past to an Elohist source ( G. F. Moore , ICC , 1895 ) and now generally considered (for example, by Wellhausen, Gray, Boling,...

Sin

Sin   Reference library

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...as two categories of people, are conceived of as two powers that control the world ( Testament of Judah 20.1). Sin is present from the time of one's birth: “All that are born are corrupted with wickedness, full of sins, burdened with guilt” ( 2 Esd. 7.68–69 ; cf. 8.35 ). Sin sometimes is described as a defiant attitude toward God ( Sir. 10.12–13 ). Nevertheless, the Law continued to be the measuring rod of one's righteousness ( Sir. 35.1 , 41.8 ; Ps. Sol. 14.2). In the Dead Sea Scrolls, sin is often personified as an angel or spirit that controls...

Chronicles, First and Second Books of

Chronicles, First and Second Books of   Reference library

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... argue, rather, in favor of a secondary assimilation of both Greek versions. A “Prayer of Manasseh, king of Judah, when the king of Assyria put him in prison” is among the Noncanonical Psalms found at Qumran (4Q381, frg. 33.8; cf. 2 Chr. 33 ). The Second Book of Chronicles 20.7 is alluded to in the Commentary on Genesis A (4Q252 ii.78) where the “tents of Shem” ( Gn. 9.27 ) are identified as the land given “to Abraham, his beloved.” Work with Place Names (4Q522) mentions the “rock of Zion” in a context similar to that of 1 Chronicles 21.18–22.1 ....

Peter, Letters of

Peter, Letters of   Reference library

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...Naphtali 3.4–5, San. 10.3) that Jude 5–7 reflects. In three respects 2 Peter is closer than Jude to the form of the schema found in the Damascus Document: 2 Peter adds the generation of the Flood ( 2 Pt. 2.5 , CD ii.20–21) to Jude's examples of sinners, it adds examples of righteous people spared judgment ( 2 Pt. 2.5–8 , CD iii.3–4), and it states the general lesson that the examples illustrate ( 2 Pt. 2.9–10 , CD ii.16–17). The Second Letter of Peter describes Christianity as “the way of truth” ( 2.2 ), “the straight way” ( 2.15 ), and “the...

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