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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is mocked for his modest apparel. The joust takes place offstage. 7 Pericles wins but looks melancholic and refuses to eat at the banquet. Simonides and his daughter Thaisa also lose their appetite: Thaisa is charmed by the mysterious knight and her father is too keen to discover his origins to care about food. Simonides sends his daughter over to Pericles to enquire about his identity. Pericles refrains from disclosing his real identity and introduces himself as a lord from Tyre. 8 In Tyre, Pericles’ lords complain about the protracted absence of their...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...poetry lent it perfectly to the studies in Shakespeare’s imagery pioneered by Caroline Spurgeon . In later 20th-century criticism the play has been of particular importance to feminist critics interested in Shakespeare’s representations of sexual difference, and to postcolonial commentators more concerned with its images of empire and of race. Stage history: Although early allusions allow us to infer that the play was performed in 1606–7 , no records exist of any further performances before 1759 , when David Garrick and Edward Capell prepared it...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...him in his sleep, while wishing Richmond victory. Richard starts awake, fearful and despairing; Richmond rises refreshed, and cheers his soldiers in an oration. 5.6 Richard plans his battle strategy, and rallies his army in an oration. 5.7 During the battle, Richard’s horse is killed but he continues fighting. 5.8 Richmond defeats him in single combat. Stanley presents Richard’s crown to Richmond, who proclaims a general pardon and looks forward to ending the country’s civil wars by marrying Elizabeth and uniting the houses of Lancaster and York. Artistic...

The Rape of Lucrece

The Rape of Lucrece   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,732 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...people against the Tarquins, who were banished, and the monarchy was replaced by a consular republic. The first section of the poem focuses primarily on Tarquin’s consciousness. At its opening he is already speeding alone towards Collatium (ll. 1–7), the origins of his lust recounted briefly in flashback (ll. 8–49): Lucrece welcomes him, unsuspecting, and later he retires to bed (ll. 50–126). Alone, he reflects on his intended crime before rising and lighting a torch (ll. 127–89): the next thirteen stanzas (ll. 190–280) are his soliloquy, dilating on the...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and jewellery. Antonio urges Graziano to join Bassanio on board their ship for Belmont. 2.7 Morocco chooses between the three caskets, which all bear mottoes: the lead ‘Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath’, the silver ‘Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves’, and the gold ‘Who chooseth me shall get what many men desire’. To Portia’s relief he chooses the gold casket, which contains a death’s head bearing a poem, ‘All that glisters is not gold…’ 2.8 Salerio and Solanio, associates of Bassanio, discuss Shylock’s anguish at the loss of his...

Richard Duke of York

Richard Duke of York   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,705 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Elizabeth laments Edward’s capture and takes sanctuary to protect her unborn child. 4.6 Richard, Hastings, and Stanley rescue Edward while he is hunting and depart for Flanders to seek aid. 4.7 Henry is released from the Tower and appoints Warwick and Clarence joint protectors. Henry prophesies that the young Richmond—future Henry VII—will one day become king. 4.8 The Yorkists land in England ostensibly to claim Edward’s dukedom at York. The Mayor is intimidated into granting them entry into the city, and Edward is proclaimed King. 4.9–10 Warwick and...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to claim French territory and, as a comment on his youth and alleged frivolity, has sent a barrel of tennis balls as a present. The King dismisses the ambassadors after promising that he will soon avenge this mockery in full, and sets the preparations for his campaign in motion. 2.0 The Chorus describes the country’s eager preparations for the war, but also outlines a French-funded conspiracy to assassinate the King at Southampton. 2.1 Corporal Nim and Ensign Pistol quarrel about Nim’s former fiancée the Hostess, Mistress Quickly, whom Pistol has married: they...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...violating poetic justice. During the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed...

Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,098 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Barbara , Romeo and Juliet : The Nurse’s Story’, Critical Quarterly, 14 (1972) Hunter, G. K. , ‘Shakespeare’s Earliest Tragedies: Titus Andronicus and Romeo and Juliet’, Shakespeare Survey 27 (1974) Kahn, Coppélia , ‘Coming of Age in Verona’, Modern Language Studies , 8 (1977–8) Levenson, Jill , Plays in Performance: Romeo and Juliet (1987) Levin, Harry ‘Form and Formality in Romeo and Juliet ’, Shakespeare Quarterly 11 (1960) Porter, Joseph , Shakespeare’s Mercutio: His History and Drama (1988) Slater, Ann Pasternak , ‘Petrarchanism Come...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...brings the news that Birnam Wood is apparently coming to Dunsinane: Macbeth feels that he is doomed, but resolves to fight defiantly. 5.6 Malcolm places the English nobleman Siward and his son in the vanguard of their army. 5.7 In the battle Macbeth, convinced he can only be killed by a man not born of woman, kills Young Siward. 5.8 Macduff seeks Macbeth. 5.9 Siward tells Malcolm Macbeth’s castle has surrendered. 5.10 Macduff confronts Macbeth: they fight, but Macbeth tells Macduff of his presumed invulnerability. Macduff, however, tells Macbeth he was born...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...John Oldcastle, but a descendant of this real-life historical figure (who was regarded as a Protestant hero, and features in Foxe ’s Book of Martyrs ), insisted on its being changed. (This was either William Brooke , 7th Lord Cobham —Elizabeth’s Lord Chamberlain from August 1596 until his death the following March—or his son Henry, 8th Lord Cobham.) Even the play’s altered text, though, retains traces of the original name (Sir John is called ‘my old lad of the castle’ by the Prince, 1.2.41–2), as well as the original names of two of his tavern...

As You Like It

As You Like It   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,253 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sense triumphed over the foreign affectations represented by Phoebe: according to Frederick Boas, for example, the play replaced ‘the artificial atmosphere of the Renaissance pastoral’ with ‘the open-air freshness, the breeze and blue of the old English ballad-poetry’ ( 1896 ). The 20th century saw a renewed and usually more complicated interest in the play’s dealings with the literary conventions of its time, with scholars reading it not only against Lodge’s Rosalynde (dismissed as ‘worthless’ by George Steevens in 1770 , but studied with increasing...

King Lear

King Lear   Reference library

Stanley Wells and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,801 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...out of love for her father, not personal ambition. Sc. 19 (4.4) The jealous Regan tries to persuade Oswald to reveal the contents of letters he is carrying from Gonoril to Edmund. She sends a token to Edmund by Oswald and offers promotion to anyone who will kill Gloucester. Sc. 20 (4.5) Edgar persuades a suspicious Gloucester that they are close to the edge of Dover Cliff and invents a description of the view. Believing himself on the verge, Gloucester prays and leaps forward. Speaking in a different accent, Edgar approaches him as if he really had fallen....

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and colonialism by the 1840s, when the Brough brothers’ burlesque The Enchanted Isle depicted Caliban as a black abolitionist who sings the ‘Marseillaise’, and Charlotte Barnes hybridized the play (in The Forest Princess , 1844 ) with the story of Pocahontas. During the 20th century this view would be developed by many anti-colonial writers, particularly Octave Mannoni in East Africa , and would become a commonplace of cultural materialist and new historicist criticism from the 1970s onwards. The extent to which the play, though set in the...

will, Shakespeare’s

will, Shakespeare’s   Reference library

Stanley Wells

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...silver-and-gilt bowl. 2. To his sister Joan (Hart), £20, all his wearing apparel, and the house in which she was living in Henley Street for as long as she lived, at an annual rent of 12 d . 3. To Joan’s three sons, £5 each. 4. To his granddaughter Elizabeth Hall (then 8 years old), all his plate except the bowl left to Judith. 5. To the poor of Stratford, £10. 6. To Thomas Combe , his sword. 7. To Thomas Russell , £5. 8. To Francis Collins, £13 6 s . 8 d . 9. To Hamnet Sadler , 26 s . 8 d . to buy a ring (replacing what had apparently been a...

Warwick, Earl of

Warwick, Earl of   Reference library

Anne Button

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Warwick who appears in The First Part of the Contention ( 2 Henry VI ) and Richard Duke of York ( 3 Henry VI ) , inherited Beauchamp’s title of Earl of Warwick by marrying his daughter Anne.) In Henry V , though present as part of the English army in 4.7 and 5.2, he speaks only one line, 4.8.20. In 1 Henry VI he plucks a white rose (2.4.36), helps Plantagenet to recover his title of Duke of York (3.1), and condemns Joan la Pucelle (5.6). (2) In The First Part of the Contention he quarrels with Suffolk (1.3 and more seriously 3.2) and Old Lord...

Portugal

Portugal   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Rui Carvalho Homem

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...’, in Dirk Delabastita and Lieven D’hulst (eds.), European Shakespeares: Translating Shakespeare in the Romantic Age (1993) Coloquio sobre Shakespeare, 7, 8 e 9 de maio de 1987 (1987) de Mello Moser, Fernando , Discurso inacabado: ensaios de cultura portuguesa (1994) Homem, Rui Carvalho , ‘Of Negroes, Jews and Kings: on a nineteenth-century royal translator’, The Translator 7:1 (2001) Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Carolina , ‘Shakespeare in Portugal’, Shakespeare Jahrbuch , 15 (1880) Rebello, Luiz Francisco , História do Teatro Português...

Plants

Plants   Reference library

Vivian Thomas

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...pothecary | And tell me how it works’ (12.8–9). Here is also an indication of empiricism central to the scientific project. The Friar in Romeo and Juliet , fully aware of the duality possessed by plants integral to pharmacopoeia, distinguishes between ‘baleful weeds and precious-juiced flowers’, and acknowledges that within a single flower, ‘Poison hath residence and medicine power’ ( Romeo and Juliet 2.3.8–24). The impoverished apothecary who provides Romeo with poison is subject to strict legal constraints (5.1.66–7). Laertes acquires his deadly poison from...

travel

travel   Reference library

Kenneth Parker

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...It 4.3.34–7) is the often-cited view, then recall that Thaisa describes to King Simonides ‘A knight of Sparta…| And the device he bears upon his shield | Is a black Ethiop reaching at the sun’ ( Pericles 6.18–20). The distinctions, as well as the consequences which follow, are clearest with regard to the Indies. The ‘dead Indian’ the English will pay tenfold to see yet ‘will not give a doit to relieve a lame beggar’ ( The Tempest 2.2.30–3) and Othello’s ‘base Indian’ who ‘threw a pearl away | Richer than all his tribe’ ( Othello 5.2.356–7) are probably...

education

education   Reference library

Stanley Wells

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the school. Like all grammar schools, it offered a humanist education centred on the classics, especially Latin literature and rhetoric—Greek was taught mainly in the larger schools. Boys could be admitted at the age of 7 provided they could read. They had an arduous regime, ‘creeping like snail | Unwillingly to school’ ( As You Like It 2.7.145–6) with their satchels around 6.00 a.m. and continuing their studies till the late afternoon, with few holidays. Prescribed textbooks in Shakespeare’s time and for centuries afterwards were the Short Introduction of...

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