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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Man’yōshū

Man’yōshū   Reference library

D. B. Lurie

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...current form in the late 8th (or perhaps early 9th) c. ce . At over 4,500 poems, it is the largest of the major waka collections and also the most varied in terms of poetic form, vocabulary, subject matter, and social position of authors. In 20 books arranged according to diverse principles, it was clearly compiled in stages by multiple editors. About half of the poems are anonymous, and named authors include early legendary and quasi-legendary figures: reliable attributions to historical individuals begin around the middle of the 7th c. The most recent poem...

Wallace-Crabbe, Chris(topher)

Wallace-Crabbe, Chris(topher) (1934–)   Reference library

Jennifer Strauss

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Australian Centre at Melbourne University. Periods in America include a Harkness fellowship ( 1965–7 ) and a visiting professorship of Australian Studies at Harvard ( 1987–8 ). His early advocacy of American poets ( Robert * Lowell , Wallace * Stevens ) demonstrated the sharp eye for shifts in poetic preoccupations which has been a feature of critical work such as his influential essay ‘The Habit of Irony: Australian Poets of the Fifties,’ in Meanjin , 20 ( 1961 ); Melbourne or the Bush (Angus & Robertson, 1974 ), which examines different cultural...

Japan, Poetry of

Japan, Poetry of   Reference library

H. M. Horton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,154 words

...being a rest. Early Japanese poetry, most of which dates from the 7th and 8th cs. ce , includes the chōka (long poem) of an unfixed number (usually a few dozen) of alternating five- and seven-morae segments and two final segments of seven morae; the sedōka (head repeating poem) of 5-7-7-5-7-7 morae segments; the katauta (half poem) of 5-7-7 morae segments; the bussokusekika (Buddha’s footstone poem) of 5-7-5-7-7-7 morae segments; and most notably the tanka (short poem) of 5-7-5-7-7 morae segments. The last of these became so popular in the ensuing...

Jongleur

Jongleur   Reference library

W. D. Paden

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...in performance by a technique similar to that of the 20th-c. illiterate Yugoslavian guslar (Lord, Duggan); but some scholars maintain that the jongleurs read the chansons de geste from a book even in the earliest times. They probably did the same with romances and saints’ lives, texts that frequently depict the narrator as a jongleur. See medieval poetry . Bibliography E. Faral , Les Jongleurs en France au moyen âge (1910); Jeanroy; R. Morgan , “Old French Jogleor and Kindred Terms,” RPh 7 (1954) ; R. Menéndez Pidal , Poesia juglaresca y...

Onomatopoeia

Onomatopoeia   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and J. M. Cocola

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,340 words

...Shape of Language (1979), also rpt. in Jakobson, vol. 8 ; L. I. Weinstock , “Onomatopoeia and Related Phenomena in Biblical Hebrew,” DAI 40 (1979): 3268A ; D. A. Pharies , “Sound Symbolism in the Romance Languages,” DAI 41 (1980): 231A ; R. A. Wescott , Sound and Sense: Essays on Phonosemic Subjects (1980) ; M. Borroff , “Sound Symbolism as Drama in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens,” ELH 48 (1981); Brogan, 97–108—survey of studies; Morier; R. Lewis , On Reading French Verse (1982), chap. 7 ; N. L. Woodworth , “Sound Symbolism in Proximal and...

Minnesang

Minnesang   Reference library

O. L. Sayce and A. Bostelmann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,710 words

...poets. Because the mss. were compiled at the end of the 13th or beginning of the 14th c. in southern Germany and Switzerland, the bulk of the material preserved belongs to the 13th c. and to areas close to the places of compilation. Thus, whereas there are only some 16 to 20 poets who can be assigned to the 12th c., about 130 belong to the 13th c., mostly the latter half and, on occasion, beyond. The transmission undoubtedly gives a distorted picture of the frequency and geographical distribution of poetic production at each stage but nonetheless bears...

Invention

Invention   Reference library

R. Kalas

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,601 words

...discovery or creation of subject matter, as well as the formal and structural handling of that subject matter. Examples of invention as poetic form and structure are Aristotle, Poetics 14; Boccaccio, Genealogia deorum gentilium 14.7 ( 1360 ); Joachim du Bellay, La Deffence et illustration de la langue françoyse 1.8 ( 1549 ); J. C. Scaliger , Poetices libri septem 1.1 ( 1561 ); and Alexander Pope , Preface to the Iliad ( 1715 ). Ancient theories of rhet. named inventio (discovery) as the first step in the construction of an oratorical or...

Intention

Intention   Reference library

S. Raval

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,982 words

...inquiries beginning with “why” (our reasons for finding a poem interesting and successful) with inquiries beginning with “how” (the way the poem came about). The rejection of intentionalist crit. was part of a more comprehensive attack on romanticism launched earlier in the 20th c. by T. E. Hulme and T. S. Eliot . For the modernists, romantic critics such as Walter Pater , C. A. Sainte-Beuve , and Hippolyte Taine are the antagonists whose method of appreciation and judgment of poetry is genetic. The romantic writers and critics place great...

Ireland, Poetry of

Ireland, Poetry of   Reference library

G. Batten

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
5,830 words

..., inscribed on upright stones. Oral Ir. lit. is believed to long precede the 5th c. arrival of the literate Lat. culture of such missionaries as Patrick; but in the oldest existing tablets and vellum (from the 6th and 7th cs., respectively), the vernacular tongue, often expressed in verse, already coexists with ecclesiastical texts in Lat. By the 8th c., missionaries from Ireland reversed the direction of literary exchange, carrying back to Europe instruction in cl. learning as they founded monasteries in Scotland and on the continent. With the displacement of...

Ode

Ode   Reference library

S. F. Fogle and P. H. Fry

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,348 words

..., Alfred de Musset , and Victor Hugo . Later, highly personal treatments of the genre may be found in Paul Verlaine’s Odes en son honneur ( 1893 ) and Paul Valéry ’s Odes ( 1920 ). Claudel’s Cinq grandes odes ( 1907 ), finally, shows a tendency in many odes of the 20th c. to explore traditional forms of experience, in this case Catholic devotion. In Sp., odes have figured in the work of Pablo Neruda ( 1904–73 ), who wrote three volumes of them: Odas elementales ( 1954 ), Nuevas odas elementales ( 1956 ), and Tercer libro de las odas (...

Persian Poetry

Persian Poetry   Reference library

P. Losensky

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,402 words

...; Z. Ṣafā , Tārīkh-i adabiyāt dar Īrān , 8 v. (1956–90) ; A. J. Arberry , Classical Persian Literature (1958) ; A. Pag-liaro and A. Bausani , Storia della letteratura persiana (1960) ; J. Bečka , “Tajik Literature from the Sixteenth Century to the Present,” and J. Rypka , “History of Persian Literature up to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century,” History of Iranian Literature , ed. K. Jahn (1968) ; C.-H. de Fouchécour , Moralia: Les notions morales dans la littérature persane du 3e/9e au 7e/13e siècle (1968) ; J. Meisami , Medieval...

Mimesis

Mimesis   Reference library

S. Halliwell

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,189 words

...does not track particular features of the world. It is an exercise of emotionally engaged imagination in picturing things that “ might happen” ( Poetics 9). This produces a paradox in Aristotle’s position: in Poetics 6, he calls tragedy “(a) mimesis of life,” but in chs. 78, he stresses that the unity of a tragic/epic plot depends on narrative conditions far more rigorous than the diffuseness of life itself. Aristotelian mimesis is an artistic process that selectively reconfigures the “raw materials” of life. As such, it possesses a...

Poland, Poetry of

Poland, Poetry of   Reference library

K. Biedrzycki

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
6,029 words

...Święch , Literatura polska w latach II wojny światowej , 6th ed. (2005) ; T. Michałowska , Średniowiecze , 8th ed. (2006) ; J. Ziomek , Renesans , 11th ed. (2006) ; C. Hernas , Barok , 8th ed. (2006) ; M. Klimowicz , Oświecenie , 9th ed. (2006) ; A. Nasiłowska , Literatura okresu przejściowego 1975–1996 (2006) ; M. P. Markowski , Polska literatura nowoczesna: Leśmian, Schulz, Witkacy (2007) ; A. Witkowska , R. Przybylski , Romantyzm , 8th ed. (2007) ; J. Kwiatkowski , Dwudziestolecie międzywojenne , 3d ed. (2008) ; R. Koropeckyj , Adam...

Heptasyllable

Heptasyllable   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and P. White

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...such lines appear most prominently in the verse form known as “8s and 7s,” as in John Milton ’s “L’Allegro” and “Il Penseroso.” In Fr., they are one form of vers impair , though the heptasyllables in Pierre de Ronsard’s odes are a deliberate imitation of Pindar, whose odes were printed in short lines in the 16th c. Only in Italian prosody is the heptasyllable or settenari a major line form, being used in alternation with the hendecasyllable , the endecasillabo . This mixing of lines of 7 and 11 syllables in stanzas is distinctive to It. prosody and...

Waka

Waka   Reference library

G. Heldt

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,225 words

...the caesura at different points between the poem’s five measures. The earliest waka favor a tripartite structure using a 5-7 rhythm, with the caesura after the second and fourth measures (5-7, 5-7, 7) or after the second and third ones (5-7, 5, 7-7). From the 9th c., a 7-5 rhythm became increasingly common, with the caesura at the first and third measures (5, 7-5, 7-7) or, esp. in later waka, only after the third measure (5-7-5, 7-7). Individual letters in written poems could also make up acrostics ( oriku ), palindromes ( kaimon ), and elaborate ...

Trochaic

Trochaic   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,332 words

...rare (in Marina Tsvetaeva in Rus.; in the verse known as “8s and 7s” in Eng.). And internal line dynamics differ radically: first-foot stress reversals are four times more common in iambic verse (12%) than in trochaic (3%) in Eng. and 30 times more common in Rus. There is a widespread perception among poets and prosodists that trochaic meters are in some way more rigid, more brittle, “more difficult to maintain” (Hascall) than iambic ones. In Eng., there is a mixed iambo-trochaic form known as “8s and 7s,” instanced most famously in John Milton ’s “L’Allegro”...

Alexandrine

Alexandrine   Reference library

G. Peureux

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
991 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Fr. can routinely identify with certainty in a given verse line is limited to eight or fewer, the alexandrine is heard not as a whole but as two hexasyllabic units. But the cl. 6-6 alexandrine is just one of the possible 12-syllable meters in Fr., along with 8-4, 4-4-4, 3-5-4, 5-7, and 7-5, all of which appeared during the second half of the 19th c. Strictly speaking, the designation “alexandrine” should be reserved for 6-6 lines and not all dodecasyllabic lines. Given its status as the favorite Fr. meter, the alexandrine has always been criticized....

Byzantine Poetry

Byzantine Poetry   Reference library

M. D. Lauxtermann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,811 words

...Byzantine ( 1204–1453 ). Constantinople officially became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (now called the Byzantine Empire) in the year 330 ; around 600 , urban civilization and traditional power structures began to collapse, leading to the “dark age” crisis of the 7th and 8th cs. In 1204 , Constantinople was conquered by the knights of the Fourth Crusade, and although it was reconquered in 1261 , the Byzantine Empire had been reduced to a few territories that were gradually taken by the Ottoman Turks until the city itself fell in 1453 . Although...

Accentual Verse

Accentual Verse   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and C. O. Hartman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,096 words

...verse that seem to be so; (7) literary verse (often stichic) that is less regular than accentual-syllabic principles would demand but clearly not entirely free, e.g., the four-stress lines that Helen Gardner has pointed out in T. S. Eliot ’s Four Quartets ; (8) Ger. knittelvers , both in a freer, late med. variety subsequently revived for literary and dramatic purposes by J. W. Goethe and Bertholt Brecht , and in a stricter, 16th-c. variety ( Hans-Sachs verse ) in octosyllabic couplets; and (9) Rus. dol’nik verse, a 20th-c. meter popularized by ...

Catalog

Catalog   Reference library

R. A. Hornsby, T.V.F. Brogan, and J. P. Warren

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...developing into the catalog of the “good woman” type in Boccaccio and Chaucer. Although the catalog of feminine beauty may preserve gender stereotypes, it can function in other ways in a poem like Shakespeare’s sonnet 130, “My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun.” In 19th- and 20th-c. Eur. and Am. poetry, other functions of catalog and catalog rhet. have emerged. Writers in antebellum America featured catalog rhet. in both poetry and prose, notably in R. W. Emerson ’s and H. D. Thoreau ’s essays, in Herman Melville’s encyclopedic fictions, and, most...

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