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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Pickwick Papers

Pickwick Papers  

A novel by Dickens, first issued in 20 monthly parts April 1836–Nov. 1837, and as a volume in 1837.Mr Samuel Pickwick, general chairman of the Pickwick Club which he has founded, Messrs Tracy Tupman, ...
Inns of Court

Inns of Court   Reference library

David Sugarman

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
503 words

...a ‘mouldy little plantation … Sparrows were there, cats were there, dry-rot and wet-rot were there, but it was not otherwise a suggestive spot’ ( OMF 1.8); Davies' (subsequently Thavies') Inn; Furnival's Inn ( John Westlock has rooms in this ‘shady quiet place’: MC 36); Lyon's Inn; New Inn; Staple Inn, where Mr Snagsby walks in summer ( BH 10) and where Mr Grewgious has chambers ( MED 11, 20); and Strand Inn. By the 1890s the Inns of Chancery had been dissolved. Several of Dickens's characters lived in the Temple, the area of London occupied by...

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri (1265–1321)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
867 words

...and chapter 45 contains two references to Inferno (xx. 7–15 and iv. 20–1). Purgatorio , xxxiii. 130–2 was to be the *epigraph (later discarded) for chapter 2; Purgatorio , xxi. 104 is quoted in chapter 6; and Purgatorio , xxi. 37–8 in chapter 13. The most revealing Dante reference in Romola , however, is in a passage deleted from chapter 21 of the manuscript: ‘The greatest of Italian poets recorded in his vitriolic verse his hope of a deliverer for Italy’. Here she alludes to Paradiso xxx. 137–8, and her comment provides a succinct and striking insight...

‘Clergymen of the Church of England’

‘Clergymen of the Church of England’   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
483 words

...This situation needs to change. 7. The College Fellow Who Has Taken Orders is another category in need of refining. Fellows are required to be celibate. Formerly, when fellows were monks, and lifelong celibates, it was reasonable to ordain them without further preparation. Ordination is now usually a preface to clerical life outside the university. Not every fellow is necessarily fit for or suited to a clergyman's life. Fellows should be thoughtfully prepared for the sacrament and for the responsibilities to follow. 8. The Curate in a Populous Parish is...

Dearden, William

Dearden, William (1803–89)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
418 words

...After Elizabeth Gaskell 's biography of Charlotte, Dearden sprang to the defence of ‘this venerable clergyman’ and corrected a number of stories about Mr Brontë, at the same time recording his own memories of the family in letters to the Bradford Observer ( 20 Aug. 1857 , p. 8, and 27 June 1861 , p. 7). He interviewed the servant Nancy Garrs ( see servants of the brontës ) and reported that Patrick did not dine alone during her time at the Parsonage, that he taught his children ‘at stated times during the day’, and that ‘His children were the frequent...

Heaton family

Heaton family   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
796 words

..., for example). Robert Heaton (the 7th of the line; 1787–1846 ) married Alice Midgley of the Manor House, Haworth, in May 1821 , the year after the Brontës arrived in Haworth. Both he and later his son Robert (8th; 1822–98 , unmarried) were, like their predecessors, trustees of Haworth Church Lands; yet they were also involved in the Scar Top Methodist Chapel (built 1818 ), about a mile west of Stanbury. Heaton family members occupied various substantial farmhouses in the district. Robert Heaton (7th) had a brother who lived nearby, Michael...

folklore

folklore   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,011 words

...Ghosts can be seen and/or heard at Christmas (‘The Dead Quire’, TL ), on Midsummer Eve ( JO 3.8), and on All Souls' Eve (‘I Rose Up as My Custom Is’, SC ). Eustacia Vye is widely believed to be a witch, and indeed encourages such notions: she compares herself to the biblical Witch of Endor ( RN 1.6), and she offers Johnny Nun -such a crooked sixpence, believed to be a charm against witchcraft (1.7). As a result, she is thought capable of casting spells (2.8), the effects of which Johnny 's mother Susan tries in turn to prevent by magic of her own....

earnings of George Eliot

earnings of George Eliot   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
508 words

...of George Eliot . George Eliot 's first earnings were £20 for her translation of D. F. *Strauss 's Das Leben Jesu , published in 1846 (and 25 copies of the book). Her later translation of Ludwig *Feuerbach was hardly more lucrative: she earned 2 s. a page, about £30 in all. She was in the fortunate position of having a small income of about £90 annually from her father's estate, so that when she went to *London in 1851 she was not entirely dependent on her earnings. Her work as editor of the * Westminster Review appears to have been unpaid,...

homes of George Eliot

homes of George Eliot   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
597 words

...21 Cambridge Street on 17 October 1853 , where her relationship with G. H. *Lewes began and from where she left with him for *Germany on 20 July 1854 , shortly after the publication of her translation of Ludwig *Feuerbach 's The Essence of Christianity . On their return in the following spring, the couple lived for a few months at 7 Clarence Row, East Sheen, until 3 October 1855 when they moved to lodgings at 8 Park Shot, Richmond, where they lived for three and a half years. Scenes of Clerical Life and much of Adam Bede were written there in the...

‘Hunting Sketches’

‘Hunting Sketches’   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
556 words

...but still aware he suffers disapproval. 7. The Master of Hounds. The master as usually described is not anyone's first choice. Ideally, he should be a wealthy English country gentleman, a resident of the area. Although hunts are ‘subscribed’, he pays much more than is collected. He needs £500 for each day of week there is hunting; he usually has three subscriptions per week and one (free) for neighbours. He has great authority, and should deserve it. It is a great deal of work, a demanding and happy occupation. 8. How to Ride to Hounds. Novices should...

Chartism

Chartism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
584 words

...were not allowed to process to Parliament, and the petition proved to contain many bogus signatures such as ‘Victoria Rex, April 1’, fictitious names, and obscenities. Charlotte Brontë's comments were temperate and comparatively liberal, for she agreed with W. S. Williams on 20 April 1848 that Chartist grievances should not be neglected ‘nor the existence of their sufferings ignored. It would now be the right time, when an ill‐advised movement has been judiciously repressed to examine carefully into their causes of complaint and make such concessions as...

London

London   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
943 words

...bell of St Paul's’ and its ‘Dome, looming through a London Mist’ in The Professor (ch. 7). Her solitary departure from London in January 1843 was hauntingly evoked in Villette (ch. 6). Her next visit, in Anne's company ( 7–11 July 1848 ), included meetings with George Smith , W. S. Williams , and T. C. Newby , a visit to the National Gallery (opened 1838 ) and to Covent Garden for The Barber of Seville (transformed into the concert episode in Villette (ch. 20)). Anne's novels were written before she visited London, which figures in Tenant mainly...

money values

money values   Reference library

Philip Collins

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,227 words

...Kit can treat his and Barbara's families to an outing to Astley's Circus followed by ‘three dozen of your largest oysters’ and beer ( OCS 39). Another treat, Guppy's ample ‘Slap-bang’ dinner for three, including second-helpings, cheese, beer, rum, and a tip costs 8s 6d (42.5p) ( BH 20). But it is evident how kindly restrained was David Copperfield's protest that it was ‘more than we can afford’ ( DC 44) when Dora, hearing that he ‘would like a little bit of fish’, bought a whole salmon costing £1 6s (around £100 in 1990s currency). A...

Little Dorrit

Little Dorrit   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,050 words

...Dickens ). On 7 April 1856 he exclaimed to Forster that some things in his depiction of Flora seemed to him ‘extraordinarily droll’, and before writing No. 9 he told Forster, ‘The story lies before me, I hope, strong and clear. Not easily to be told, but nothing of that sort is to be easily done that I know of’ (? 11 June 1856 ). After writing Book II, chapter 1, in which the travellers meet at the Convent of the Great St Bernard in the Swiss Alps (an idea recorded in his working notes for No. 1, and mentioned again to Forster in a letter of 20 January 1856...

music

music   Reference library

Robert T. Bledsoe

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,512 words

...ballads are important parts of Dickens's artistic engagement with music as part of the texture of his novels, but he also alludes more generally to the emotional power of music to create powerful (or comical) associations with memory. Dickens's writing often suggest that, as the 20th-century composer Paul Hindemith maintained, music evokes not feelings but ‘memories of feelings’ ( A Composer's World , 1952 ), and indeed in Dickens's novels musical reactions are often closely tied to dreams and memories. Sometimes the association between music and memory is...

circus

circus   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
875 words

...more from his acquaintance with Astley's than with a travelling show. Dickens knew the circus well from an early age, although he turned to Lemon for advice on ‘any slang terms among the tumblers and Circus-people, that you can call to mind’ when he began writing Hard Times ( 20 February 1854 ). ‘There is no other place which recalls so strongly our recollections of childhood than Astley's’, he wrote in ‘Astley's’ ( SB ). Kit and Barbara take their families there on their half-holiday: ‘Dear, dear, what a place it looked, that Astley's, with all the...

names

names   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,041 words

...( FFMC 8) implies that Bathsheba's people are acquainted with folk from Under the Greenwood Tree . Such playful strokes add to our sense of Wessex, which extends to the world of the poems. Parson Thirdly ( FFMC 8) is mentioned in ‘Channel Firing’ ( SC ). Hardy's rural titles, such as ‘Farmer Oak’, ‘Miller Loveday’, ‘Tranter Dewy’, or ‘Jack Durbeyfield, the haggler’, help to create a sense of life in a small locality. The reddleman Diggory Venn remarks on how children speak as though there were only one fox, one devil, and one reddleman ( RN 1.8); Hardy...

annuals

annuals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,225 words

...poem by ‘L.E.L.’ ( Letitia Elizabeth Landon ) that accompanies an engraving copied by both Charlotte and Emily from the Forget Me Not ( 1831 ) ( Alexander & Sellars , pp. 15, 177–8). The frequent picturesque and Gothic description in the Brontë juvenilia was clearly influenced by the text and plates, such as ‘Bessy Bell and Mary Gray’ (Alexander & Sellars, pp. 176–7). But the Brontës' borrowing was not undiscriminating. Charlotte reviewed three engravings from Friendship's Offering ( 1829 ), criticizing the mismatch between engraving and text,...

editions

editions   Reference library

J. Don Vann, J. Don Vann, and Anny Sadrin

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,024 words

...The 22-volume Authentic Edition appeared in 1901–6 , and the seventeen-volume Oxford India Paper Edition in 1901–2 , with Forster's Life added as an eighteenth volume in 1907 . The latter was reissued as the Fireside Edition in 23 volumes in 1903–7 and as the Eighteen Penny Illustrated Edition in 20 volumes in 1908 . The plates of the Authentic Edition were used to print the Universal Edition, also 22 volumes, in 1912 . In 1902–3 Chapman and Hall published a nineteen-volume set at 3s 6d per volume and hoped to emphasize Dickens's connection with...

railways

railways   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,039 words

...Midland railway were precarious. During the railway panic of 1847–8 , their investments were again at risk, largely owing to Hudson's malpractices. Charlotte was fortunate, for her publisher, George Smith , shrewdly reinvested her money in safer securities ( see finances of the brontës ). Charlotte's first railway journey was the prelude to her first, awestruck, sight of the sea. In September 1839 she travelled by coach from Keighley to Leeds, and thence, with Ellen Nussey , took the 20-mile, one-and-a-half-hour train journey from Marsh Lane station to...

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