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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Totonacan Languages

Totonacan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
507 words

...level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 37%, 2 25%, 3 10%, 4 10%, 5 8%. Tepehua, Pisa Flores: 4,000 speakers in Veracruz, towns of Pisa Flores, Ixhuatlán de Madero, and one other town. Not in Puebla. 59% intelligibility with Huehuetla (closest), 40% or less with Tlachichilco. Limited bilingualism in Spanish. Tepehua, Tlachichilco: 3,000 speakers in Tlachichilco, Veracruz. 37% intelligibility with Pisa Flores (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 5%, 1 20%, 2 50%, 3 20%, 4 4%, 5 1%. Otomí, Náhuatl also used. Totonaca, Coyutla: 30,000...

Barbacoan Languages

Barbacoan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...More distantly related to Chachi and Colorado. Barbacoas: formerly spoken in Colombia near the coastal town of Barbacoas, Nariño. Chachi: also called Cayapa, Cha' Palaachi. 3,450 speakers in Ecuador. Ethnic population: as of 2000 , estimated at either 3,500 to 5,000, or 7,000 to 8,000. Northern coastal jungle, Esmeraldas Province, Cayapas River and its tributaries (Onzole, Canandé, Sucio, Cojimíes, and others). Some bilingualism in Spanish. Women, older people, and those living in the isolated headwaters of the river are less bilingual in Spanish....

Mixtecan Languages

Mixtecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,206 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Metlatonoc. Metlatonoc has 70% intelligibility of Xochapa. A separate language from Metlatonoc. Mixteco, Amoltepec: also called Western Sola de Vega Mixtec, Amoltepec Mixtec. 7,000 speakers. Ethnic population: 8,000 to 9,000. 63% intelligibility of Ixtayutla Mixteco, 52% of Pinotepa Nacional Mixteco, 46% of Yosondúa Mixteco, 42% of Nuyoo, 32% of Zacatepec, 25% of San Juan Colorado, 20% of Jamiltepec, 15% of Chayuco. 4,000 to 5,000 functional monolinguals. Speakers in Amoltepec center know some very basic Spanish, but those in the outlying rancherìas are quite...

Chinantecan Languages

Chinantecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
765 words

...to 20 people know some English. All ages. All domains. Oral use in local administration, business. A few teachers try to teach it in school. Oral and written use in church. Vigorous language use. Parents transmit it to children. Speakers have a positive attitude toward it. Chinanteco, Tepetotutla: 2,000 speakers in northern Oaxaca, Santa Cruz Tepetotutla, San Antonio del Barrio, San Pedro Tlatepusco, Santo Tomás Texas, Vega del Sol, El Naranjal. 60% intelligibility of Quiotepec Chinanteco, 59% of Palantla Chinanteco, 48% of Yolox. Chinanteco, Tepinapa: 8,000...

Choco Languages

Choco Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
410 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Spanish. Emberá-Tadó: also called Embená Tadó. 1,000 speakers in Colombia, upper San Juan River region, Andes, Risaralda region, near the Chamí. Northern Emberá: also called Empera, Ebera, Bedea, Atrato, Darien, Dariena, Panama Embera, Cholo, Eerā. 20,000 speakers in Panama and Colombia. In Panama: 7,000 speakers in southeastern Panama, Darién area, lowland jungle. Some bilingualism in Spanish. In Colombia: 13,000 speakers in Atrato River basin in Chocó department, Pacific coastal rivers from Cabo Corrientes (5′30″N), to Antioquia (Rio Verde)...

Hurrian and Urartian

Hurrian and Urartian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,148 words

...3:Derivational suffix   + 4:Plural (intrans. & modal)   + 5:Transitivity + 6:Neg-1   + 7a:Modal/7b:Ergative subject/7c:Impersonal   + 8:Neg-2 + 9:Relative (Plural)   + 10:Enclitic Absolutive + 11:Agreement   + 12:Enclitic Adv/Conj In the following phrases, elements governing agreement are within single brackets, and agreement markers within double brackets. Subscript numbers refer to the morphological template of the verb. (2) tuppi nihar ( i )[- ne-we ] ar 0 - ož 2 - af 7b -(š)š e 9 -[[- ne-we 11 ]] tablet dowry- def-gen  give- past -I- rel-def-gen ‘the...

Zapotecan Languages

Zapotecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,553 words

...and socio-economically separated. Spoken in Zacatepec. Virtually extinct in Juquila with 2 elderly men speakers remaining. Chatino, Zenzontepec: also called Northern Chatino. 8,000 speakers. Some dialect differences in Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl area. One of the most isolated and conservative groups in Oaxaca. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 50%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Zapoteco, Albarradas: also called Albarradas Zapotec. 5,500 speakers in central Oaxaca, Santa María Albarradas, Santo Domingo Albarradas, San Miguel Albarradas....

Traces

Traces   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,370 words
Illustration(s):
1

...illustrated in (7), and first discussed by Postal 1971 , has also been analyzed in terms of traces (originally by Wasow 1972 ): (7) * Who 1 does he 1 think Mary likes t 1 ? This sentence, in which the wh -phrase “crosses over” a coindexed pronoun, contrasts with this grammatical example: (8) Who 1 t 1 thinks Mary likes him 1 ? This contrast can be explained by Condition C of Chomsky's 1981 Binding theory, under the assumption that the trace left by wh -Movement behaves like an R-expression, and hence must be A-free. Then (78) correspond to...

Tangut-Qiang Languages

Tangut-Qiang Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,176 words

...the Qiangic sub-branch. LANGUAGE LIST Ersu: also called Duoxu, Erhsu. 9,000 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,000 as of 2000 . Dialects are Ersu (Eastern Ersu), Duoxu (Central Ersu), Lisu (Western Ersu, Lüzü, Liru). Menia (Menya) is reported to be a dialect, but it is unclear how it relates to the other dialects. Dialect differences are reported to be great, so speakers do not understand each other. About 500 elderly speakers are monolingual. About 8,000 use Chinese, 400 use Yi as second languages. In the eastern area: vigorous language use among the...

Logical Form

Logical Form   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,393 words

...to resolve the ellipsis by covertly copying VPa into the ellided VP position, we perpetuate the ellipsis: (7) John has [ VPa introduced everyone you have [ VPb [ VPa introduced everyone you have [ VPb Ø] to Mary ]] to Mary .] This leads to both an infinite regress and to gibberish. If, instead, we QR the object of the verb as in (8) before copying the antecedent VP to derive the full LF representation (9), we resolve the ellipsis properly: (8) [ everyone you have [ VPb Ø].] 1 John has [ VPa introduced t 1 to Mary ]. (9) [ everyone you...

Uto-Aztecan Languages

Uto-Aztecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,500 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Bilingualism in Tarahumara, Spanish. Tepecano : formerly spoken in Mexico in northwestern Jalisco near Bolaños. No speakers were found in 1972 . Tepehuán Norte : also called Northern Tepehuán. 8,000 speakers in Mexico in southern Chihuahua, Baborigame area. Related to Pima Bajo, O'odham, Southern Tepehuán. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 15%, 1 15%, 2 20%, 3 35%, 4 10%, 5 5%. Tarahumara also used. Tepehuán Sureste : also called Southeastern Tepehuán, O'dam, Tepehuano. 10,000 speakers in Mexico, southeastern Durango, Mezquital municipality. Santa...

Anaphora

Anaphora   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,092 words

...(7) John bought some donkeys and Harry vaccinated them . (8) Just one man drank rum and he was ill afterwards . If the occurrence of them in (7) is treated as a bound variable, the logical form of the sentence will be: (7′) [Some x : donkeys x ] (John bought x & Harry vaccinated x ). But this is incorrect. (7′) can be true even if Harry did not vaccinate all the donkeys John bought; but (7) cannot be. (If John bought ten donkeys, and Harry vaccinated only two of them, then (7′) would be true, but (7) would not.) And if the pronoun he in (8) is...

Eskimo-Aleut Languages

Eskimo-Aleut Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,360 words
Illustration(s):
1

...10. Dialects are West Greenlandic, East Greenlandic, Polar Eskimo (North Greenlandic, Thule Eskimo). Dialects border on being different languages. Bilingualism in Danish. Vigorous language use in Greenland. National language. In Denmark: 7,000 speakers. Inuktitut, Western Canadian: 4,000 speakers in Canada. Ethnic population: 7,500 as of 1981 . Dialects are Copper Inuktitut (Copper Eskimo, Copper Inuit), Caribou Eskimo (Keewatin), Netsilik, Siglit. Caribou Eskimo dialect may need separate literature. In Commer and farther west, parent and grandparent...

Meso-Melanesian Languages

Meso-Melanesian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,204 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Fesoa, Fessoa. 5,138 speakers in Papua New Guinea. Nehan: also called Nissan, Nihan. 7,000 speakers in Papua New Guinea, North Solomons Province, Nissan Island. Dialects are Nehan, Pinipel (Pinipin). Not closely related to other languages. Notsi: also called Nochi. 1,600 speakers in Papua New Guinea, New Ireland Province, central New Ireland district, east coast. Papapana: 120 speakers in Papua New Guinea, North Solomons Province. Patpatar: also called Gelik, Patpari. 7,000 speakers in Papua New Guinea, New Ireland Province, south central Namatanai...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who return do not like Quechua speakers to use Spanish loans. Quechua, Ayacucho: also called Runasimi, Chanka. 900,000 speakers in Peru, the southwestern Ayacucho region and Lima. Dialects are Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 31%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 8%, 5 1%. Perhaps 300,000 are monolingual, 600,00 can speak varying degrees of Spanish. Some families are switching to Spanish. Spoken in local administration, oral and written Ayacucho Quechua used in some schools and more than one university. Parents transmit Ayacucho...

Algonquian Languages

Algonquian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Northwestern: also called Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe. 20,000 speakers in Canada. Southern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. Dialects are Berens River Ojibwa (Saulteaux), Lac Seul Ojibwa, Albany River Ojibwa, Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, Rainy River Ojibwa. Concerted effort via language teaching in public schools and other efforts to reverse decline in use. Ojibwa, Severn: also called Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Ojicree, Oji-Cree, Cree. 8,000 speakers in Canada. Ethnic population: 8,000 or fewer, possibly including some Northwestern Ojibwa....

East New Guinea Highlands Languages

East New Guinea Highlands Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,876 words

...Trade language. Erave: also called Pole, South Kewa, Kewa South. 7,000 speakers in southern Highlands Province. Fore: 17,000 speakers in eastern Highlands Province, Okapa district. Dialects are Pamusa (South Fore), North Central Fore. Gadsup: 10,000 speakers in eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu district. Dialects are Oyana (Oiyana), Gadsup. Ontenu is a related but separate language. Gants: also called Gaj. 1,885 speakers in Madang Province. Gende: also called Bundi, Gene, Gendeka. 8,000 speakers in Madang Province, Bundi district near Bundi....

Fula

Fula   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,220 words
Illustration(s):
1

...# -kon/-koy/-koyn # Augmentative 7 ŋga * N -a -wa -ga -ŋga 8 ko * N -o -ho -ko -ko Non-personal 9 nde C -(e)re/-de -re -de -de 10 ndi N -(i)ri/-di -ri/di -di -ndi 11 ndu C -(u)ru/-du -ru/-du -du -ndu 12a ŋga N -a/-wa + -wa -ga -ŋga 12b mba * N -a/-wa + -wa -ba -mba 13 ŋge C -e -ye/-we # -ge -ŋge 14 ŋgo C -ho -wo -go -ŋgo 15a ŋgu N -u -wu -gu/-ku -ŋgu 15b ŋgii * N -ii -wii -gii -ŋgii 16 ŋgal P -hal -wal -gal -ŋgal 17 ŋgol P -ol -wol -gol -ŋgol 18 ka N -a -ha/-wa * -ka -ka 19 ki P -i -hi/-wi * -ki -ki 20 ko C -o -ho/-wɔ * -ko -ko 21 kol * P -ol...

Gur Languages

Gur Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,515 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hissala. 20,000 speakers in north central Ghana, Lambusie and surrounding towns. Close to Sissala of Burkina Faso, but distinct. Sissala: also called Sisaali. 13,000 speakers in Burkina Faso, Sissili Province, between Léo and Hamale. Thirty villages. All one dialect in Burkina Faso. A separate language from the Sisaala languages in Ghana, although closest to Western Sisaala (Busilli) All ages. Sola: also called Soruba, Bijobe, Biyobe, Sorouba, Solla, Uyobe, Miyobe, Meyobe, Kayobe, Kuyobe, Solamba. 8,700 speakers in Benin and Togo. In Benin: 7,000 speakers...

Iranian Languages

Iranian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,307 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a positive language attitude toward Wakhi and Urdu. In Tajikistan: 7,000 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,000 as of 1990 . Gorno-Badakhshan, Pamir Mountains. Dialects are Western Wakhi, Central Wakhi, Eastern Wakhi. Dialects are inherently intelligible. Tajiki is used as a literary language. 60% to 100% of children speak Wakhi. Wakhi retained for some key domains. 70% to 100% of the ethnic group speak Wakhi. Not a written language. People are strongly supportive toward Wakhi. In Afghanistan: 7,000 speakers. Ethnic population: 18,000 as of 1990 . In China:...

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