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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

amphora

amphora  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]A large two‐handled ceramic jar with narrow neck and pointed or rounded base. Used for the storage and transportation of liquid commodities such as wine, olive oil, and fish sauce around the ...
Bandkeramik

Bandkeramik   Reference library

Peter Bogucki

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,509 words

...ware decorated with incised lines, strokes, and indentations. Most Bandkeramik decorated vessels from Slovakia to eastern France take the form of a three-quarter-spherical bowl. The largest are 24 to 28 inches (60 to 70 cm) in diameter, but most are considerably smaller, 8 to 16 inches (20 to 40 cm) across. Decorated Bandkeramik vessels are made from high-quality clay, rarely tempered. A stylus was used to make curvilinear incised lines; in simple designs in the earlier phases, becoming progressively more complex as time went on. During later Bandkeramik...

Olmec Civilization

Olmec Civilization   Reference library

Thomas W. Killion

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,967 words

... Joralemon, Peter D. “A Study of Olmec Iconography.” Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology 7 (1971). Rosenswig, Robert M. The Beginnings of Mesoamerican Civilization: Inter-regional Interaction and the Olmec , 2010. Sharer, Robert J. , and David C. Grove , eds. Regional Perspectives on the Olmec , 1989. Stirling, Matthew W. “Early History of the Olmec Problem.” In Dumbarton Oaks Conference on the Olmec , edited by Elizabeth Benson , pp. 1–8, 1968. Thomas W....

Valley of the Kings

Valley of the Kings   Reference library

Aidan Dodson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,688 words

...Eighteenth Dynasty 20 Thutmose I, usurped by Hatshepsut 42 Thutmose II 34 Thutmose III 38 Thutmose I (reburial) 35 Amunhotpe II 48 Amenemopet (Vizier) 45 Userhat (Overseer of the Fields of Amun) 43 Thutmose IV 36 Maihirpri (Fan-bearer) 22 Amunhotpe III 46 Yuya and Tjuiu (parents-in-law of Amunhotpe III) 55 Smenkhkare/Neferneferuaten (reburial) 62 Tutankhamun 23 Ay 57 Horemheb Nineteenth Dynasty 16 Rameses I 17 Sethy 7 Rameses II 5 Amenhirkopshef, Ramesse, Meryatum, and others (sons of Rameses II) 8 Merenptah 15 Sethy II...

Astronomy

Astronomy   Reference library

Anthony F. Aveni and Anthony F. Aveni

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,861 words

...contended that these people charted the long-term horizon limits of the moon, often by employing notches on the horizon as precise indicators, thus showing an interest in predicting eclipses. Moreover, Thom alleged, a fundamental measuring unit, the “megalithic yard” (about 2.7 ft [0.8 m]), was employed in the design of many of these structures, which builders often deliberately distorted into egg and elliptical shapes. Thom’s Megalithic Man was, like the modern Western scientist, apparently motivated by curiosity to understand the universe for its own sake. ...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...a day 13.0.0.0.04 Ahau 8 Cumku, 3,000 years before the earliest known dated monuments were erected. The recorded date was given in days ( kins ), twenty-day periods ( uinals ), 360-day “counting years” ( tuns ), twenty-tun intervals ( katuns ), and twenty-katun intervals ( baktuns ), which had elapsed since the base. These are normally transcribed in order from the largest unit to the smallest, followed by the resultant calendar round date. Thus 9.16.4.10.8 12 Lamat 1 Muan means that (9 × 144,000) + (16 × 7,200) + (4 × 360) + (10 × 20) + 8 days, a total of...

Databases

Databases   Reference library

Angela M. Labrador

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,076 words

...another transformative moment in the history of archaeological databases. The proliferation of Web-accessible interfaces to archaeological data required around-the-clock access to data by a growing, diverse audience. In 2004, online information delivery began to shift to the “Web 2.0” model, which emphasizes user-generated content, social networking, and interoperability. Museum professionals, archivists, and information scientists have been at the forefront of experimenting with these new forms. Methods and Implementations. Developing an archaeological...

Kennewick Man

Kennewick Man   Reference library

Francis P. McManamon

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,090 words

...P. The Archaeology of Kennewick Man. The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) Project ID 6325, 2011. http://core.tdar.org/project/6325 , accessed 20 October 2011. Nickens, Paul R. “Discovery of Ancient Remains at Kennewick Site and Subsequent Events.” In Geologic, Geoarcheologic, and Historical Investigation of the Discovery Site of Ancient Remains in Columbia Park, Kennewick, Washington , pp. B1–B7, 1998. Owsley, Douglas W. , and Richard L. Jantz . “Archaeological Politics and Public Interest in Paleoamerican Studies: Lessons from Gordon Creek...

Byzantine Culture

Byzantine Culture   Reference library

Marcus Rautman, Jodi Magness, Jodi Magness, and Robert Schick

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,696 words

...of Byzantine fortifications. They were constructed during the reign of Theodosius II in AD 412/413, and their 4.5-mile (2.8-km) course effectively isolates the peninsula on which the city is located. The walls were constantly maintained and repaired throughout the Byzantine Period, but no fundamental changes were made except for some adaptations to changing techniques of warfare. The 30-foot (9-m)-high inner wall was 16 feet (4.8 m) thick and had 96 square or polygonal towers and six main gates. A parapet ran along the inside of the curtain. The towers had...

Human Evolution, Theories of

Human Evolution, Theories of   Reference library

Richard G. Delisle, Peter Andrews, Leslie C. Aiello, Melanie Lee Chang, Susan Cachel, Nicholas Toth, Kathy Schick, and Melanie Lee Chang

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,362 words

...at Ngorora, and another single tooth from Lukeino, dated at about 8 million years ago. One of the most common groups of fossil ape in Eurasia, from about 12 to 7 million years ago, is the lineage possibly leading to the orangutan. Abundant fossils of Sivapithecus have been found by many field workers from Turkey in the west to China in the east, with the most notable collection being made by David Pilbeam and his colleagues, who have made large collections ranging from over 12 to about 7 million years ago in sediments on the Potwar plateau in Pakistan. A...

South America

South America   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Charles Stanish, Tom D. Dillehay, Thomas Pozorski, Shelia Pozorski, Anna Roosevelt, José Proenza Brochado, Francisco S. Noelli, James A. Zeidler, Theresa Lange Topic, Mary Van Buren, and Andrés Zarankin

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,578 words

...most of its 5,000-mile (8,000-km) north-south run is characterized by steep slopes, abrupt changes in climatic and biotic regimes, and frequent tectonic and volcanic activity. Highland peoples confronted the stresses of high levels of environmental unpredictability but also benefited from the close packing of microenvironments that provided opportunities for diverse uses of land and resources in relatively compact territories. In the central part of the Andean chain lying within Peru and in northern Bolivia, occupation ranged from 8,000 to 14,500 feet (2,500...

China

China   Reference library

Sarah Milledge Nelson, Sarah Milledge Nelson, Sarah Milledge Nelson, Adam Kessler, Julie M. Segraves, Julie M. Segraves, Chen Xingcan, and Magnus Fiskesjö

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,580 words

...of human bone from Salawasu in Mongolia that are thought to be from anatomically modern people. The changeover from archaic to modern humans took place during the last glaciation, which saw a dramatic rise in Stone Age populations at about the time of the glacial maximum, after 20,000 years ago. Sea levels were so low that the modern-day Sea of Japan was a large lake, which drained through the present Korea Strait. Tundra, steppe, and boreal forests covered northern China, with temperate forests in more southern latitudes. Many Late Ice Age groups subsisted...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

George Michaels, Gregory L. Possehl, Charles Higham, Song Nai Rhee, Kidong Bae, and Namita Sugandhi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,562 words

...are of the genus Sivapithecus and Ramapithecus , a subgroup of the Sivapithicines . They are closely related to the modern gibbon and can be considered a form of Dryopithecus. Gigantopithecus sometimes occurs, also. These fossils date to a period between about 11.8 million years BP and 7.2 million years BP. Pleistocene finds have been well summarized by K. A. R. Kennedy ( 1973 ). The best-documented fossil human is an Archaic Homo sapiens from the bed of the Narmada River. A second hominid fossil was found in Afghanistan at Dara-i Kur in association...

Near East

Near East   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman, Thomas E. Levy, Ianir Milevski, Bonnie L. Wisthoff, David Ilan, Assaf Yasur-Landau, and John L. Meloy

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,726 words

...built in a later date during the Iron Age. The elaborate water systems used during the Bronze and Iron ages in Jerusalem culminated in the late eighth century with the cutting of the Siloam Tunnel by King Hezekiah in anticipation of a coming Assyrian invasion in 701 BC (2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chronicles 32:1–4, 30). This 1,755-foot (535-m)-long tunnel leads from the Gihon Spring at the east of the city to the Pool of Siloam in the southwest part of the city. An eighth-century inscription found engraved on the roof of the tunnel recounts the means by which it was...

East Africa

East Africa   Reference library

Paul J. Lane, Pamela Rae Willoughby, John E. G. Sutton, John E. G. Sutton, Mark Horton, and John E. G. Sutton

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
11,104 words

...series, which fell and broke long ago, probably during the attempt to erect it in the fourth century, would have stood about 100 feet (ca. 30 m) tall and weighed over 500 tons. Close by, in what is called the Stele Park, stand the two next largest examples, each about 70 feet (over 20 m) high. (One of these had in fact fallen and broken many centuries ago until, following the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in the 1930s, it was transported to Rome as a trophy. Eventually, in the present century, it was repatriated and also repaired and erected anew—despite...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Brian M. Fagan, Peter Mitchell, David W. Phillipson, Peter Mitchell, David W. Phillipson, Peter Mitchell, Kevin MacDonald, Martin Hall, and Nick Shepherd

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
8,803 words

...DeCorse . “Historical Archaeology in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review.” Historical Archaeology 20, no. 1 (1986): 1–14. Schmidt, Peter R. Historical Archaeology in Africa: Representation, Social Memory, and Oral Traditions , 2006. Schrire, Carmel . Digging through Darkness: Chronicles of an Archaeologist , 1995. Shepherd, Nick . “Archaeology Dreaming; Postapartheid Urban Imaginaries and the Bones of the Prestwich Street Dead.” Journal of Social Archaeology 7, no. 1 (2007): 3–28. Martin Hall ; revised by Nick...

Roman Empire

Roman Empire   Reference library

Colin M. Wells, R. J. A. Wilson, David H. French, A. Trevor Hodge, Stephen L. Dyson, and David F. Graf

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,461 words

...its summit to provide a formidable obstacle to would-be invaders. In Raetia, also in the 180s or 190s, by contrast, the timber palisade was replaced by a stone wall running between the existing stone watchtowers; much narrower than Hadrian’s Wall (3.2 to 3.9 feet [1.00–1.20 m] as opposed to 8 to 10 feet [2.50–3.10 m] on Hadrian’s Wall), it is unlikely to have had space for the patrol walk usually assumed to have existed on the latter barrier. Septimius Severus (AD 193–AD 211) contemplated the reoccupation of Scotland in his campaigns against the Maeatae—South Shields...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...

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