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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

7‐20‐8

7‐20‐8 (1907)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Theatre (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
337 words

...‐208 ; or, Casting the Boomerang , ( 1907 ) , a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly . [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady , picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman and her huge dog that both Courtney Corliss (John Drew ), a handsome young man‐about‐town, and the remote Lord Lawntennis decide to seek her out. The Englishman sends an effervescent Italian opera impresario, Signor Tamborini ( William Gilbert ), to do his legwork. Corliss's and Tamborini's search brings them to the country estate of...

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77 Abbreviations for Group of Five ; Group of Seven ; Group of Eight ; Group of 10 ; Group of 11 ; Group of 77 ....

7-20-8

7-20-8  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1907),a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman and ...
30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...came into being in 1955 . Today Austria’s population is c .8.2 million, of whom 1.6 million live in Vienna. 2 Early history In the Middle Ages, book culture flourished in such monasteries as Salzburg (then belonging to Bavaria) and *Kremsmünster , both 8 th -century foundations, and later at Admont, St Florian, and elsewhere. In 1500 , the population of the area corresponding to present-day Austria was about 1.5 million. Vienna had c .20,000 inhabitants, Schwaz 15,000, Salzburg 8,000, Graz 7,000, Steyr 6,000, and Innsbruck 5,000. At that date, Vienna’s...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the Cultural Revolution in 1969 —the Little Red Book gained its value largely from its status as a political icon. Even as the book is demystified and deconsecrated in the modern world, its symbolic value endures. ( See also 2 , 8 , 38 .) Bibliography H. Amory , ‘The Trout and the Milk: An Ethnobibliographical Talk’, HLB NS 7 (1996), 50–65 E. R. Curtius , European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages (1953) J. Milton , Areopagitica ...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...experimentation with the possibilities of bookbinding as an art form. Nineteenth- and 20 th -century bookbindings commonly have decoration on their covers or dust jackets that reflects the content of the book. This is a modern development; throughout the medieval and hand press periods, bookbinding decoration was normally abstract, with no attempt to use designs to represent content. There are exceptions, but they are very few in proportion to the bulk of what was produced. 8 The bookbinding trade Bookbinding was generally carried out as a professional activity...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Company and early institutional structures of the British book trade 3 The origins of legal copyright 4 Nineteenth-century economic history and innovations in the book trade 5 Reducing the cost of paper 6 Mechanization of printing 7 The wages of compositors and cost of composition 8 Types of publishing firm 9 The 20 th century 1 The economic value of a book Four essential factors determine the economic value of a book: its worth as literary property, the cost of its manufacture, regulatory and institutional controls, and its price in the market. The...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...History of the Book in the Balkans Ekaterina Rogatchevskaia and Aleksandra B. Vraneš 1 Balkan geography 2 South Slavonic MSS and the beginning of printing 3 Bulgaria 4 Serbia 5 Montenegro 6 Macedonia 7 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 Croatia 9 Slovenia 10 Albania 11 Romania 12 The socialist and post-socialist eras 1 Balkan geography The Balkans, the region in the southeast of Europe, is geographically bounded by the rivers Sava and Danube in the north; the Mediterranean in the south; the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean Sea in the east...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...information available for England. Many places do not have surviving parish registers, and estimates of the national population based on hearth tax returns for 1687 vary from 1.7 million to 2.2 million. About 100 years later the population is thought to have reached somewhere between 4.2 and 4.8 million. The census of 1821 recorded 6.8 million. Twenty years later this had risen to 8.2 million. The major difference between Ireland and the rest of the British Isles is that this population growth was not associated with rapid urbanization. The urban proportion...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is mocked for his modest apparel. The joust takes place offstage. 7 Pericles wins but looks melancholic and refuses to eat at the banquet. Simonides and his daughter Thaisa also lose their appetite: Thaisa is charmed by the mysterious knight and her father is too keen to discover his origins to care about food. Simonides sends his daughter over to Pericles to enquire about his identity. Pericles refrains from disclosing his real identity and introduces himself as a lord from Tyre. 8 In Tyre, Pericles’ lords complain about the protracted absence of their...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...and thence to Southeast Asia. By the 20 th century, as a consequence of colonial empires, most of the world’s peoples except the Chinese and Japanese were writing in alphabetic scripts. These employ on average between 20 and 40 basic signs; the smallest, Rotokas, used in Papua New Guinea, has 12 letters, the largest, Khmer, used in Cambodia, has 74 letters. The western alphabetic link between the Greeks and the Romans was Etruscan—as is clear from the early Greek letter-forms inscribed on Etruscan objects dating from the 7 th century bc , which were then...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...as provider of Spanish-language books: by 2005 it produced 39.7 per cent of all Spanish books sold in Latin America, whereas Spanish-American countries accounted for 40.2 per cent of sales. The biggest Latin American publishers of books in Spanish continued to be Argentina (27.1 per cent), Mexico (19 per cent), and Colombia (16.3 per cent), followed by Peru (6.1 per cent), Venezuela (5.9 per cent), Chile (5.6 per cent), Ecuador (4.3 per cent), Costa Rica (3.8 per cent), and Cuba (2.8 per cent) (SIER). Given that school textbooks were still dominant—with...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...poetry lent it perfectly to the studies in Shakespeare’s imagery pioneered by Caroline Spurgeon . In later 20th-century criticism the play has been of particular importance to feminist critics interested in Shakespeare’s representations of sexual difference, and to postcolonial commentators more concerned with its images of empire and of race. Stage history: Although early allusions allow us to infer that the play was performed in 1606–7 , no records exist of any further performances before 1759 , when David Garrick and Edward Capell prepared it...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...History of the Book in Germany John L. Flood 1 Introduction 2 The Middle Ages 3 The 15 th century 4 The 16 th century 5 The 17 th century 6 The 18 th century 7 The 19 th century 8 The 20 th century 1 Introduction Historically, ‘Germany’ is difficult to define in geographical and political terms. The Roman province of Germania covered only the southern part of what we now call Germany; the area north and east of the Danube, Main, and Rhine was never part of the Roman empire. Whereas around 1200 Germany was thought of as extending ‘from the...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a printing office for the Polish Socialist Party in London. 7 The 20 th century When Poland regained independence in 1918 , printing, publishing, and cultural life were reinvigorated, but many obstacles remained for the development of reading and book culture. Literacy levels were low ( c .33 per cent in 1921 ) and book prices were high. There were approximately 500 publishers in Poland in 1935 ; overall production in terms of titles had nearly trebled from c .3,000 (early 20 th century) to c .8,700 ( 1938 ). Gebethner & Wolff remained the giants of...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...History of the Book in China J. S. Edgren 1 The book before paper and printing 2 Tang to Yuan (7 th –14 th centuries) 3 Ming to Qing (14 th –19 th centuries) 4 The 20 th century 1 The book before paper and printing Although the early invention of true paper (2 nd century bc ) and of textual printing (late 7 th century) by *woodblock printing profoundly influenced the development of the book in China, the materials and manufacture of books before paper and before printing also left some traces. Preceding the availability of paper as a writing...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...him in his sleep, while wishing Richmond victory. Richard starts awake, fearful and despairing; Richmond rises refreshed, and cheers his soldiers in an oration. 5.6 Richard plans his battle strategy, and rallies his army in an oration. 5.7 During the battle, Richard’s horse is killed but he continues fighting. 5.8 Richmond defeats him in single combat. Stanley presents Richard’s crown to Richmond, who proclaims a general pardon and looks forward to ending the country’s civil wars by marrying Elizabeth and uniting the houses of Lancaster and York. Artistic...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...divine revelation and redemption 3 Arabic scribal culture and its legacy 4 Physical aspects of the Muslim MS book 5 The Muslim MS book beyond the Arab world 6 The longevity of the Muslim MS tradition 7 The origins of printing in the Arabic script 8 Arabic-script book printing in the Muslim world 9 Printing the Qur’ān 10 Muslim book culture in the 20 th and 21 st centuries 1 The origins of the Arabic book Arabic is a Semitic language akin to Hebrew and Aramaic. The *Arabic script developed from that of ancient Nabataean Aramaic, and reached only a...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...19 th century, although literary writing was already growing fast. Bibles, tracts, and commentaries made up some 20 per cent of the books published between 1814 and 1846 . The second- and third-largest categories were almost equal: a catch-all, combining works on geography, *travel , history, and biography came in at 17 per cent, while fiction and juvenile literature measured about 16 per cent. A little over half of the latter category, 8.9 per cent or 3,180 entries over 32 years, constituted *novels , romances, and tales as distinct from moral tales...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to 350,000; South Australia from 63,000 to 126,000; Queensland from 8,000 to 30,000. Tasmania, however, flat-lined; the end of convict transportation in 1855 combined with the pull of the mainland goldfields to cancel out any population growth from free settlers. Universities, too, were being established—at Sydney ( 1851 ), Melbourne ( 1853 ), Adelaide ( 1874 ), and Tasmania ( 1890 )—although higher education remained the exclusive preserve of a tiny minority until well into the 20 th century, and university libraries were accordingly slow to develop....

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