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1812

Subject: Music

Concert overture, op. 49 (1880), by Tchaikovsky; written for the Moscow Exhibition, it commemorates Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812 and incorporates La Marseillaise and the Tsarist ...

1812

1812   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
80 words

...1812 . Concert overture, op. 49 ( 1880 ), by Tchaikovsky ; written for the Moscow Exhibition, it commemorates Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812 and incorporates La Marseillaise and the Tsarist national anthem. The original idea was for it to be performed in a Moscow square with large orchestra, military band, cathedral bells, and cannon fire. It is sometimes still performed with a cannon (especially at the popular Tchaikovsky evenings in the Royal Albert Hall, London, and at summer concerts...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
104 words

...of 1812 The last conflict between Britain and the USA began when the British blockade of Napoleonic Europe and naval impressment of American sailors inflamed relations. Western American politicians campaigned for conquest of Canada to open land for settlement and eliminate Indian resistance. Congress declared war on 16 June 1812 . The Americans failed to overrun Canada, despite battles including Queenston Heights ( 1812 ). The British retaliated for the destruction of York (later Toronto) in April 1813 by occupying Washington in August 1814 and burning...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

Ged Martin

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
168 words

...of 1812 . The last conflict between Britain and the USA began when the British blockade of Napoleonic Europe and naval impressment of American sailors inflamed relations. Western American politicians campaigned for conquest of Canada to open land for settlement and eliminate Indian resistance. Congress declared war on 16 June 1812 —four days after Castlereagh had announced relaxation of the blockade. The Americans failed to overrun Canada, despite battles including Queenston Heights ( 1812 ), Chrysler’s Farm ( 1813 ), Lundy’s Lane, and Chippewa ( 1814 )....

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,349 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Wars . ] Bibliography Borneman, Walter R. 1812: The War that Forged a Nation . New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004. One of the new works examining the importance of the War of 1812 to the development and growth of the American Republic. Forester, C. S. The Age of Fighting Sail: The Story of the Naval War of 1812. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956. A classic work detailing the naval conflict on the Great Lakes and the oceans during the conflict. Heidler, David Stephen . Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 . Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1997....

War of 1812

War of 1812 (1812–15)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
322 words

...of 1812 ( 1812–15 ) A war between Britain and the USA. US frustration at the trade restrictions imposed by Britain in retaliation for Napoleon’s Continental System , together with a desire to remove British and Canadian obstacles to US westward expansion, led the US Congress to declare war on Britain (June 1812). The USA–British North American (Canadian) border was the main theatre of war. In July, the US General, William Hull, advanced into Upper Canada, but in early August withdrew to Detroit, which was soon after captured by Major‐General Isaac Brock....

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,739 words
Illustration(s):
1

...after the fleeing Patriot soldiers. African Americans achieved a great deal in the War of 1812 . Thousands of free blacks served with honor in the U.S. military; others fought valiantly for the British. Chesapeake slaves struck for freedom when given the opportunity, and marooned fugitive slaves helped stave off the conquest of Spanish Florida. Away from the battlefields African Americans gained and lost during the War of 1812 . By disrupting commerce, the War of 1812 gave African Americans a brief respite from the westward expansion of cotton and slavery....

War of 1812

War of 1812 (1812–15)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
187 words

...of 1812 ( 1812–15 ) Conflict between the USA and Britain. The main source of friction was British maritime policy in the Napoleonic Wars , including the impressment of sailors from US vessels and the interception of US merchant ships. Border disputes with Canada also contributed. In 1811 , President James Madison reimposed the Nonintercourse Act on trade with the British. The USA was ill-prepared for war and an invasion of Canada failed. Stephen Decatur restored US pride. Victory on Lake Erie ( September 1813 ) enabled US forces, led by William H. ...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...1891; 1986. Alfred T. Mahan , Sea Power in Its Relations to the War of 1812 , 2 vols., 1905. Frank Updyke , The Diplomacy of the War of 1812 , 1915. Bradford Perkins , Prologue to War: England and the United States, 1805–1812 , 1961. Bradford Perkins , Castlereagh and Adams: England and the United States, 1812–1823 , 1964. J. C. A. Stagg , Mr. Madison's War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American Republic, 1783–1830 , 1983. George F. Stanley , The War of 1812: Land Operations , 1983. Steven Watts , The Republic Reborn: War and the...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

William Earl Weeks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Battle of ; Trade and Tariffs and U.S. Diplomacy and War ; and Washington, George .] Bibliography Black, Jeremy . The War of 1812 in the Age of Napoleon . Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009. Borneman, Walter R. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation . New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Hickey, Donald R. Don’t Give Up the Ship!: Myths of the War of 1812 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006. Latimer, Jon . 1812: War with America . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007. William Earl...

War of 1812.

War of 1812.   Reference library

William Earl Weeks

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,072 words

...to 1900 ; Perry, Oliver Hazard and Matthew ; Quasi-War with France . Julius Pratt , Expansionists of 1812 , 1925. Roger H. Brown , The Republic in Peril: 1812 , 1964. Reginald Horsman , The War of 1812 , 1964. J.C.A. Stagg , Mr. Madison's War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American Republic, 1783–1830 , 1983. Steven Watts , The Republic Reborn: War and the Making of Liberal America, 1790–1820 , 1987. Donald R. Hickey , The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict , 1989. William Earl...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
518 words

...of 1812 , fought between the U.S. and Great Britain ( 1812–15 ). During the Napoleonic Wars, American shipping flourished to such an extent that it harmed both French and English commerce and led the British to impress British sailors on board American ships, and the Americans retaliated with embargo and nonintercourse acts. Meanwhile Clay , Calhoun , and other “war hawks” in Congress felt that the British were unfairly preventing American expansion in the West by such means as inciting Indians to hostilities along the frontier, and they desired war to...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...of 1812 ( 1812–15 ) Often called the “second war of independence” because it, too, was fought against Great Britain, this war yielded no territorial gain, but it did carry sharp political and economic ramifications. Its origins were partly political but primarily economic. During the Napoleonic Wars ( 1793–1801 , 1803–15 ), Great Britain impressed a considerable number of American seamen into the Royal Navy, claiming they were either deserters or British subjects and refusing to recognize their naturalized status. Equally offensive to U.S. sovereignty and...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,221 words

...British take Michilimackinac, a key fur-trading post, during the early phase of the war on 17 July 1812 . Native allies also played an important role in the taking of Detroit, first by cutting off American communications with the fort, then by intimidating General William Hull , who believed that Brock had 5,000 Native warriors with him, when in fact there were only 600. This victory demonstrated that Upper Canada could be defended, and on 13 October 1812 Brock had another opportunity to prove himself at the Battle of Queenston Heights, where the...

War of 1812

War of 1812   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of 1812 Known at the time as ‘Madison's war’ after the US president who prosecuted it so badly. This war was a failed attempt by the young USA to seize Canada while Britain was engaged fighting Napoleon in Europe. It might better have been called ‘the Republicans' war’, for it was this party, and in particular the ‘war hawks’ who dominated the House of Representatives thanks to the leadership of Henry Clay of Kentucky, that most wanted it. It was remarkable in that the alleged reason for the war, the British Orders in Council designed to counter Napoleon's...

War of 1812, the

War of 1812, the   Reference library

David Hildebrand

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
929 words

...in America, 1785–1815 (Washington, D C, 1991) K. Van Winkle Keller : Music of the War of 1812 in America (Annapolis, MD, 2011) D. Hildebrand : Music of the War of 1812 (Annapolis, MD, 2012) [sound recording] D. Hildebrand : “War Reporting in 1812—through Song,” Sea History , cxxxix/Summer (2012), 16–21 K. Van Winkle Keller : The Isaiah Thomas Broadside Ballad Collection (Worcester, MA, forthcoming) Colonial Music Institute : Music of the War of 1812, 〈 www.1812music.org 〉 [includes essays, bibliographies, database, and other resources] For further bibliography...

Charles Dickens 1812–70

Charles Dickens 1812–70   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
30 words

...Charles Dickens 1812–70 He describes London like a special correspondent for posterity. Walter Bagehot 1826 – 77 English economist and essayist in National Review 7 October 1858 ‘Charles...

Robert Browning 1812–89

Robert Browning 1812–89   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
53 words

...Robert Browning 1812–89 Meredith's a prose Browning, and so is Browning. Oscar Wilde 1854 – 1900 Irish dramatist and poet Intentions (1891) ‘The Critic as Artist’ pt.1 Chaos, illumined by flashes of lightning. on Robert Browning's ‘style’ Oscar Wilde 1854 – 1900 Irish dramatist and poet Ada Leverson Letters to the Sphinx ...

1812

1812  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
Concert overture, op. 49 (1880), by Tchaikovsky; written for the Moscow Exhibition, it commemorates Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812 and incorporates La Marseillaise and the Tsarist national ...
War of 1812

War of 1812   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
94 words
War of 1812

War of 1812   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
94 words

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