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1776

Subject: Music

America’s obsession with its own history had already resulted in at least two Broadway musicals based on momentous national events before this show opened at the 46th Street Theatre on ...

1776

1776 (1969)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Theatre (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
170 words

... ( 1969 ) , a musical play by Peter Stone (book), Sherman Edwards (music, lyrics). [46th Street Theatre, 1,217 perf.; Tony, NYDCC Awards.] In the spring and summer of 1776 , delegates have gathered in Philadelphia to work on a Declaration of Independence. Much of the give‐and‐take is seen through the eyes of the waspish John Adams (William Daniels ), who writes about it to his beloved Abigail ( Virginia Vestoff ). Thomas Jefferson (Ken Howard ) and Benjamin Franklin (Howard Da Silva ) also play prominent roles. By the time the Declaration is signed,...

1776

1776   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the American Musical

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Performing arts, Music
Length:
414 words

...and it was greeted with surprise and rave notices, running 1,217 performances. The musical toured successfully and saw some regional productions, although the nearly all-male cast made 1776 a difficult show for most schools and community theatres. The 1997 Roundabout Theatre production in New York, directed by Scott Ellis , was so well Casts for 1776 Character 1969 Broadway 1972 film 1997 Broadway John Adams William Daniels William Daniels Brent Spiner Benjamin Franklin Howard Da Silva Howard Da Silva Pat Hingle Thomas Jefferson Ken Howard Ken...

Model Treaty of 1776

Model Treaty of 1776   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Treaty of 1776 an agreement between the United States and France that codified reciprocal commercial practices and strictly defined contraband, while rejecting any formal political or military alliance. It was drafted by John Adams and is regarded as the first expression of American foreign...

1776

1776   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Music
Length:
402 words

... America’s obsession with its own history had already resulted in at least two Broadway musicals based on momentous national events before this show opened at the 46th Street Theatre on 16 March 1969. Exactly 20 years before that, Miss Liberty , with a score by Irving Berlin , concerned itself with the period leading up to the dedication ceremony for the lady with the torch, and, in 1925, songwriters Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart , together with librettist Herbert Fields , offered Dearest Enemy , which was ‘inspired’ by the American Revolution....

The Growth of Health Spending in the United States from 1776 to 2026

The Growth of Health Spending in the United States from 1776 to 2026   Reference library

Thomas E. Getzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
18,675 words
Illustration(s):
6

...that contributed as much or more to the transformation as medical care. Figure 1. (a) U.S. National Health Expenditure share of GDP 1776–2016; (b) Annualized growth rate (15-year moving average). Table 1. U.S. Health Expenditures, GDP, Population, and Employment, 1776 to 2016 NHE (% GDP) GDP per Cap. ($2009) U.S. Pop. (millions) Life Expectancy % Urban Physicians per 1,000 Pop. Staff per Physician Health % Employment 1776 1.9 $1,468 2.6 43 < 5% — — — 1850 2.2 $2,516 23 38 15% 1.86 0.1 0.8 1880 2.3 $4,175 50 46 20% 1.77 0.5 0.8 1900 2.5 $5,356 76 49 40%...

1776

1776  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
America’s obsession with its own history had already resulted in at least two Broadway musicals based on momentous national events before this show opened at the 46th Street Theatre on ...
Model Treaty of 1776

Model Treaty of 1776  

An agreement between the United States and France that codified reciprocal commercial practices and strictly defined contraband, while rejecting any formal political or military alliance. It was ...
Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...about natural rights. Indeed, Bentham 's Fragment on Government ( 1776 ) was the opening salvo in a long personal campaign which was designed to expose the manifold inadequacies of the Blackstonian legal system. He advocated root-and-branch law reform and positive legislation according to a more pragmatic standard than rights: namely, the *Enlightenment [32] ideal of utility, or in Benthamite language ‘the greatest happiness of the greatest number’ [ see *utilitarianism ]. In 1776 , although there were many practical criticisms of particular aspects of...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...one Church as the exclusive object of public Endowment’ in Australia, and the Colonial Office discouraged plans for the further endowment of Anglican rectories in Upper Canada. It is a measure of the limits of the alliance between the imperial government and Anglicanism after 1776 that nowhere in the empire was the Church of England formally made the established church. Though, as we have seen, imperial policy was deeply coloured by the counter-revolutionary attitudes of the British oligarchy, the actual form assumed by imperial rule was also influenced by...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the second half of the nineteenth century (with the development of railways, steamships, and a burgeoning Atlantic economy) could large numbers of performers and their promoters break out from geographic and economic constraints to articulate and exploit ever wider markets. In 1776 Britain's potential market for music and musicians was undoubtedly rich—probably more so than anywhere else—in the essential ingredients of purchasing power and leisure. Musicians were already becoming aware of the new possibilities, and were sometimes enterprising by...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it is useful to divide the period roughly into three twenty-year segments. From the mid-1770s until the outbreak of *war [2] with France in 1793 a handful of major government projects dominated the scene. In London, there was Sir William *Chambers 's Somerset House ( 1776–96 ), a palatial administrative and cultural complex along the newly embanked Thames River; in Edinburgh, Robert *Adam 's Register House ( 1774–92 ); and in Dublin, Thomas Cooley and James *Gandon 's Four Courts judicial complex ( 1786–1802 ), new Customs House ( 1781–91 ),...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...through printed texts—which had led to the overthrow of Louis XVI , but he was also recognizing how books and the literary marketplace had created a new kind of public, the mass of readers, conscious of their capacity to play a part in the evolving drama of national politics. By 1776 this reading public was well established and the cultural and especially political implications of its composition were vigorously debated. What were its boundaries? Should the reading public be monitored, or learn to discipline itself? For the bookseller James *Lackington , the...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and America: A Common Heritage Britain and America share a common language and heritage, and for the period from 1607–1776 they shared a common history. It is a union kept alive in part by strong family ties—the legacy of four centuries of emigration . Family historians in both countries have a direct interest in strengthening those ties and finding out more about the emigrants. British people have long been aware of the interest that Americans have in family origins and their British ancestry, but, until comparatively recently, the topic had no...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from James Harris ( 1709–80 ), who regarded languages as manifestations of a universal grammar. This universal grammar was taken to have its basis in pure acts of mind, although in practice the classical languages were taken to offer the best available model for it. However, by 1776 grammarians such as George Campbell ( 1719–96 ) could bluntly say: ‘there cannot be such a thing as an universal grammar, unless there were such a thing as an universal language.’ Correctness was increasingly seen as a matter of faithfulness to the peculiar idioms of English,...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...transformed. On the eve of American independence, few could contemplate British life without the slave empires of anglophone America. By 1832 , British slavery was doomed. The figures provide the framework. Whites outnumbered blacks by two to one in the British Americas by 1776 , but African slaves constituted by far the higher proportion of migrants. Since the early seventeenth century some 815,000 whites had migrated to the British settlements, compared to 2,339,000 African slaves. Of course, the Africans and their local-born descendants (who inherited...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...demonstrated the tendency of even enlightened men to assume that women were by their natures essentially creatures of sensibility (perhaps because men were thought to depend on them for refinement). Adam Smith 's Theory of Moral Sentiments ( 1759 ) and Wealth of Nations ( 1776 ) argue that better material conditions at home improved child-rearing and thereby nourished ‘sensibility’. Poverty, he said, was ‘extremely unfavourable to the rearing of children … the common people cannot afford to tend them with the same care as those of the better station.’...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Writings there’s no place for Conjectures … Diligence and Fidelity … are the Characters here requisite’ (Bentley, Proposals , sig. A2 v ). Bentley’s work had a huge effect on classical editing in Europe and England, where his numerous disciples included Jeremiah Markland ( 1693–1776 ) and *Porson . His influence also extended into the expanding field of the editing of secular, modern, and early modern literary writing, particularly to *Theobald . For Theobald—editor of Shakespeare ( 1733 ) and the critic, in Shakespeare Restored ( 1726 ), of Pope’s...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...domain’ of works that were available to any publisher who wished to produce an edition at a competitive price (Gray, 197). Among those who took immediate advantage of the new dispensation was John *Bell , proprietor of the ‘British Library’ bookshop on the Strand in London. In 1776 , Bell initiated his ‘Poets of Great Britain Complete from Chaucer to Churchill’, a series running to a total of 109 volumes, priced at 1 s . 6 d . each. He also launched ‘*Bell’s British Theatre ’ in 21 volumes, published in 6 d . weekly *numbers , or parts (Altick, 54). These...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... (Ibarra, 1783–8 ); Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus (widow and heirs of Ibarra, 1788 )—is a product of that cooperation. One indication of Spain’s resurgent importance is the fact that both *Baskerville ( Specimen of the Word Souverainement in 11 sizes , 1766 ) and *Bodoni ( 1776 ) travelled to Madrid to present samples of their types for the royal press. The state also sought to make Spanish *de luxe publishing competitive throughout Europe. Books of quality emerged from the Madrid workshops of *Ibarra , *Sancha , and *Cano , and from printing...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...also came to Canada from Philadelphia, was *Mesplet , a native of Marseilles. As French printer for the Continental Congress, he had printed three letters encouraging the inhabitants of Quebec to join the Americans in rebellion. He packed his press and set off for Montreal in 1776 while the city was occupied by the American army, but when the troops withdrew he was detained. The political turmoil that brought Mesplet to Montreal drove other printers, Loyalists, from a newly independent US. John Howe came from Boston to Halifax, while Shelburne, on Nova...

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