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15-16-17

Subject: Music

15-16-17 was a female vocal trio formed in 1974 in the UK, although they came from Jamaica. The line-up consisted of Sonia Williams, Christine McNabb and her sister Wraydette McNabb. ... ...

Comparative Study of Some of the Leading Music Systems of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries

Comparative Study of Some of the Leading Music Systems of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

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Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

...Study of Some of the Leading Music Systems of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries A compilation of short articles by V.N. Bhatkhande on 19 major Sanskrit treatises on music. The treatises include Sadrāga Chandrōdaya , Sangeeta Pārijāt , Chaturdanḍi Prakāśikā , and Rāga Lakṣhaṇam . The year of publication of the book is not stated but is indicated in S.N. Ratanjankar 's foreword as 1940 . The articles were written much earlier, and signified the earliest attempts to focus on the traditions of Indian music as documented in the Sanskrit...

15-16-17

15-16-17   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Music
Length:
339 words

...-16-17 15-16-17 was a female vocal trio formed in 1974 in the UK, although they came from Jamaica. The line-up consisted of Sonia Williams, Christine McNabb and her sister Wraydette McNabb. They entered a talent contest at the Georgian club in Croydon, Surrey, England, performing as the Gorgon Sisters, but changed to 15-16-17 (the name reflecting the girls’ ages) on the advice of the owner of the club, Castro Brown. They won the contest for two weeks in a row with a cover version of Louisa Mark ’s lovers rock track, ‘Caught You In A Lie’. With Brown...

15-16-17

15-16-17  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
15-16-17 was a female vocal trio formed in 1974 in the UK, although they came from Jamaica. The line-up consisted of Sonia Williams, Christine McNabb and her sister Wraydette McNabb. ...
Comparative Study of Some of the Leading Music Systems of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries

Comparative Study of Some of the Leading Music Systems of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
A compilation of short articles by V.N. Bhatkhande on 19 major Sanskrit treatises on music. The treatises include Sadrāga Chandrōdaya, Sangeeta Pārijāt, Chaturdanḍi Prakāśikā, and Rāga Lakṣhaṇam.The ...
25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...dissemination of books produced in Switzerland. This may also explain why throughout the 16 th and 17 th centuries books printed in Switzerland—contrary to other European countries—mostly continued to appear in Latin rather than in the vernacular. 3 The 17 th and 18 th centuries In the 16 th century, the Catholic parts of Switzerland produced less than 1 per cent of the country’s total output, and in Fribourg printing even remained prohibited until 1584 . In the 17 th century, however, the Counter-Reformation led to sustained book production in Catholic...

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cut various *typefaces , and in the late 15 th century, *Callierges and Nikolaos Vlastos founded the earliest Greek press. The first Greek books, however, were printed in Italy, and, by the early 16 th century, several Italian printers sought to expand into the Orthodox East, starting Greek-interest presses in Venice. Approximately 440 titles had been printed by 1600 , mostly for liturgical or educational use; modern Greek literary works were far less numerous. This pattern persisted during the early 17 th century: Greek books were printed by...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...during the 15 th century, although tawed pigskin continued to be popular in and around Germany into the 17 th century. Tanned *calfskin , dyed a shade of brown, is the covering material most commonly found on post-medieval British bindings. Calf produced a durable but lightweight leather, with a smooth and pleasing surface. Tanned *sheepskin , which has a coarser grain and is less hard-wearing, was used for cheaper work. Tanned *goatskin was the leather of choice for the best-quality bindings; it was increasingly used in Europe from the 16 th century...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the numbers of printers and of printed materials in Estonia increased rapidly; toward the end of the first period of independence in 1936 , there were 94 printers at work. The first itinerant booksellers were active in Estonia in the 16 th century, while the earliest bookshops recorded in Tallinn and in Tartu date from the 17 th . Initially, books were mainly sold by bookbinders, but later, printers also offered their products for sale. Independent bookshops developed in the 18 th century (Gauger in Tartu, von Glehn in Tallinn), often operating ...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...place of publication for such works until the 19 th century), as well as *Armenian , *Hebrew , and *Arabic types ( see 8 , 38 ). Of the 1,123 Venetian editions represented in 1,387 copies now in the *Bodleian , 481 (34 per cent) were distributed and used in the 15 th and 16 th centuries in Italy; almost the equivalent number, 446 (32 per cent), ended up being used either in England (183, 13 per cent) or in Germany (263, 19 per cent). Indeed, England and Spain remained dependent on the importation of foreign books until the following century (see...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...In the 16 th century, 724 titles by Polish authors were printed abroad, and in the 17 th century more than 550. 4 The 17 th and 18 th centuries By the mid-17 th century, disastrous wars with Sweden and Russia, Cossack uprisings, and internal feuding had brought about the demise of Poland-Lithuania’s golden age. Polish printing deteriorated, particularly in the second half of the century, as did cultural, economic, and educational life generally. The victory of the Counter-Reformation stifled much of the open debate that had characterized 16 th -century...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of those going through Common Pleas. (Ives estimates 360 petitions in Chancery per year against 700 pleadings per term in Common Pleas in the late 15th century; The Common Lawyers of Pre‐Reformation England , 199.) Chancery, though, underwent the same process of growing rigidity which affected the common law writs in the 13th century. Where in the 15th and 16th centuries it heard cases on their own merits, in the 17th century it increasingly judged cases according to rules and precedent, and so lost the flexibility and expedition which had first made it...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...History of the Book in Germany John L. Flood 1 Introduction 2 The Middle Ages 3 The 15 th century 4 The 16 th century 5 The 17 th century 6 The 18 th century 7 The 19 th century 8 The 20 th century 1 Introduction Historically, ‘Germany’ is difficult to define in geographical and political terms. The Roman province of Germania covered only the southern part of what we now call Germany; the area north and east of the Danube, Main, and Rhine was never part of the Roman empire. Whereas around 1200 Germany was thought of as extending ‘from the...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Italian cities (Rome, Venice, Ferrara, Milan, and Bologna) maintained unbroken publishing activity up to and including the 16 th century. In another five (Florence, Naples, Parma, Modena, and Turin), printing had a false start, but was introduced a second time and afterwards proceeded steadily. In another two (Brescia and Siena), the new ars ran well during the 15 th century, once under way, but suffered major setbacks in the 16 th century. To understand why the printing seed was often sown but rarely flowered, one episode is particularly instructive,...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...beginning of the 20 th century, the majority of the Albanian population converted to Islam. The written Albanian language can be traced back to the 14 th or late 15 th century. Gjon Buzuku’s Meshari ( *Missal ), published in 1555 at Venice, is the first printed work in the language. The Reformation greatly advanced the development of Albanian literature and book culture, and in the 16 th –17 th centuries, original works of poetry, prose, and philosophy were published. In the 18 th century, both Christians and Muslims used the Albanian language to...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...images were often executed by *etching or engraving ( see 16 ). Bookbinding followed the fashion of neighbouring countries, especially France, but during this and later periods, frugal Netherlandish taste on the whole did not allow for much luxury in external ornamentation. The most commonly used type of binding was made of plain, unadorned *vellum ( see 17 ). The combination of religious oppression, social and political unrest, and outright war in the second half of the 16 th century proved fatal to the cohesion of the Low Countries. Within...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...aided by the mass production and distribution of books and *pamphlets . The earliest missionary presses were established in the 16 th and 17 th centuries and were linked for the most part to the Roman Catholic religious orders—Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, and Jesuits—that were engaged in activities throughout the New World and Asia. Protestant missionary presses first appeared on the Asian scene in India in the 17 th century. Over the following 100 years, foundations such as the London Missionary Society, the *British and Foreign Bible...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...abbey of St Albans late in the 15 th century, where the output of the Press at *St Albans included the Book of Hawking (compiled 1486 ). There were also early attempts to establish publishing enterprises in the English university towns. *Rood began printing at Oxford in 1481 and *Siberch commenced work at Cambridge in 1519 ; neither venture was particularly successful. In the 1580s , Joseph Barnes and Thomas *Thomas carried out some printing at, respectively, Oxford and Cambridge, but it was not until the late 17 th century in Oxford and the...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and other crops, roots, and selected grasses, fen drainage, manuring, and stock breeding were practices that could be dated to the 16th and 17th centuries. Other historians have agreed on the dating of the beginnings of these changes, but they have stressed the slow diffusion of ideas and have argued that these new methods had little quantitative effect on the early modern economy. It is clear, however, that the 16th and 17th centuries saw dramatic improvements in the quality of livestock. In 1500 cattle, sheep, and pigs still had to scavenge for food...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of new printing centres in medium-sized cities such as Douai, Pont-à-Mousson, and Dole. 5 The 17 th century Historians of the book who regard the 16 th century, especially the reign of Henri II ( 1547–59 ), as the apogee in French book arts from both a technical and an aesthetic standpoint, view the 17 th century as a period of decline. This applies to the number of titles printed (not, however, to the total output), with Parisian production dropping to 17,500 titles (excluding pamphlets). Lyons, meanwhile, kept its provincial supremacy in absolute...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Antwerp) or in Italy (Milan and Naples) should have produced Spanish works for sale not only in Spain and America, but for the European trade. From the 15 th century, Spain’s principal book imports were Latin works from Italy and Germany. There was considerable European involvement in the Spanish book trade, including the financing of occasional publications. At the beginning of the 16 th century in Catalonia, Venetians such as the bookseller Francesco de Moris represented and acted on behalf of a wide network of booksellers from Venice and from...

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