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Ḥosayn Borujerdi

Subject: Religion

Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Borujerdi (also rendered Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Burūjirdī) (1875–1961),was a Shīʿī jurisprudent and seminary director who was the sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd (source of emulation) ...

Borujerdi, Ḥosayn

Borujerdi, Ḥosayn   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Ḥosayn . Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Borujerdi (also rendered Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Burūjirdī) ( 1875–1961 ),was a Shīʿī jurisprudent and seminary director who was the sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd (source of emulation) for all Shīʿīs from 1947 to his death. Born in Borujerd (Burūjird) in western Iran, Ayatollah Borujerdi came from a family of scholars known for their religious learning. After studying in a local madrasah (Islamic seminary), where his father, ʿAlī Ṭabāṭabāʿī , was one of his main mentors, he began his advanced seminary studies in Isfahan. In 1901 ...

Borujerdi, Mohammad Hosayn

Borujerdi, Mohammad Hosayn (1962)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
63 words

...Borujerdi, Mohammad Hosayn (d. 1962 ) Iranian cleric. Advocated a quietist attitude toward politics. Supported the return of the shah to power in 1953 . Encouraged the shah to purge Bahais from government positions and seize their assets. Opposed the 1963 land reform bill, which appropriated religious endowments. Reinvigorated the practice of independent investigation of hadith. Worked to establish closer ties between Sunnis and...

Ḥosayn Borujerdi

Ḥosayn Borujerdi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Borujerdi (also rendered Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Burūjirdī) (1875–1961),was a Shīʿī jurisprudent and seminary director who was the sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd (source of emulation) for all ...
Mohammad Hosayn Borujerdi

Mohammad Hosayn Borujerdi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1962)Iranian cleric. Advocated a quietist attitude toward politics. Supported the return of the shah to power in 1953. Encouraged the shah to purge Bahais from government positions and seize ...
Ḥawzah

Ḥawzah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...). The culmination of the process of learning was the attainment of ijāzah ijtihād , which allowed the student to practice ijtihād and issue rulings from one or as many mujtahid s as possible, though not all students attained it. During the 1940s, Ayatollah Moḥammad Hosayn Borujerdi introduced reforms in the Qom ḥawzah that centralized its finances and certification process. In the early 1960s, Ayatollah Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr sought to modernize the curriculum in Najaf, but with little success, but in 1993 Ayatollah ʿAlī Sīstānī introduced a...

Ḥakīm, Muḥsin al-

Ḥakīm, Muḥsin al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...He was trained in Islamic law and theology in Najaf, studying with Ayatollah Muḥammad Kāẓim Yazdī , Ayatollah Muḥammad Ḥusayn Nāʿīnī, and others. Recognized as the leading teacher at the seminaries in Najaf, he became Shiism's chief authority when Ayatollah Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi of Qom died in 1962 . With the tithes of the faithful, forwarded to him by his clerical representatives around the Shīʿī world, Ayatollah al-Ḥakīm administered the ḥawẓah (theological center) of Najaf and provided for the financial needs of educational centers in Iraq and...

Ayatollah

Ayatollah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...figures as Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi ( d. 1962 ), who emerged as the sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd , and the religious political leader Abol-Qāsem Kāshāni ( d. 1962 ), the title “ayatollah” became ubiquitous. Losing its initial prestige, it even came to be applied, against their own usage, to Sunnī religious dignitaries. The leading ayatollah of his time came to be designated by the elative āyatullāh al-ʿuẓmā (grand ayatollah—that is, the supreme mujtahid or marjaʿ al-taqlīd ), the first bearer of the title being Borujerdi. A kind of restricted college...

Kāshāni, Abol-Qāsem

Kāshāni, Abol-Qāsem   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,005 words

...continued activities against Zahedi 's government resulted in his arrest and imprisonment in July 1956 on charges of cooperation with the Fidāʿīyān-i Islām in Razmara 's assassination in 1951 . However, Kāshāni 's old age and the mediation of Ayatollahs Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi (Muḥammad Ḥusayn Burūjirdī) and Abū al-Fazl Zanjānī saved his life. In 1958 his son, Musṭafā , was mysteriously poisoned. This tragic event and disillusionment with politics caused Kāshāni to leave politics. He died on March 14, 1962. Kāshāni was a nationalist, a...

Marjaʿ al-Taqlīd

Marjaʿ al-Taqlīd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,349 words

...listened. Whether the clergy should be directly involved in government, as implemented by Khomeini, or should confine their involvement to advising lay elected officials, as supported by al-Sīstānī , divides the marājiʿ al-taqlīd of today. See also Ayatollah ; Borujerdi, Moḥammad Hosayn ; Ḥakīm, Muḥsin al- ; Ithnā ʿAsharīyah ; Khoʿi, Abol-Qāsem ; Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi ; Najaf ; Qom ; Shīʿī Islam ; and Sīstānī, ʿAlī al- . Bibliography Abdul-Jabar, Faleh . “The Genesis and Development of Marjaʿism Versus the State.” In Ayatollahs,...

Wilāyat al-Faqīh

Wilāyat al-Faqīh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,045 words

... Mirzā Ḥasan Shīrāzī ( d. 1896 ), showed the political muscle of this office when, by his ruling of 1891 , he forced Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh ( r. 1848–1896 ), the ruler of Iran, to cancel a tobacco concession to the British. However, it was only while Ayatollah Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi was the “source of emulation” from 1947 to 1962 that it became clear that one man could turn this office into authority over the overwhelming majority of Twelver Shīʿīs. If this office in some sense represented the authority of the absent Twelfth Imam, who is, according...

Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi

Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,804 words
Illustration(s):
1

...part of Islam as philosophy and theology, increased. In the early 1950s, he was to witness the rise of the nationalist Mohammad Mossadegh and his rapid fall brought about by the United States and Britain. In 1962 , when the chief Iranian theologian, Ayatollah Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi , died, the burden of fusing religion and politics fell to Khomeini, whose aim was more to islamize politics than to politicize Islam. The shah 's secularization policies of the early 1960s gave Khomeini his first excuse to oppose the ruler. He accused the government of...

ʿAtabāt

ʿAtabāt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,370 words

...), and Iṣfahānī, who came to enjoy unchallenged supremacy during the last ten years of his life. Within a year of the death of Iṣfahānī in 1946 , Qom supplanted Najaf as the chief center of Shīʿī religious guidance through the universal acknowledgement of Ayatollah Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Borujerdi ( d. 1961 ) as sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd . Even during the period of his leadership, however, most Arab and Indian Shīʿīs preferred to study in Najaf, and after his death there were as many claimants to his mantle in Najaf as there were in Qom. Chief among these were...

Shīʿī Islam

Shīʿī Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,747 words
Illustration(s):
3

...unfolding of secularism. Khāliṣī tried to strike a balance between the radical traditionalists who denied women any social presence and status and the rising secularism in which women were actively unveiled and socially present. See Ḥāʿīrī Yazdī, Abd al-Karīm; and Borujerdi, Mohammad Hosayn . The rising tide of modernity in the 1930s and 1940s, which in political terms ultimately led to the establishment of the Pahlavi state apparatus, also witnessed a contrapuntal mode of reform in Shīʿī political thought. Mīrzā Riẓā Qulī Sharīʿat Sangalajī ( 1890–1944...

Ḥawẓah

Ḥawẓah   Reference library

Meir Litvak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
646 words

...of the process of learning was the attainment of ijāzah ijtihād , a certification that allowed the student to practice ijtihād and issue rulings from one or as many mujtahid s as possible, though not all students attained it. During the 1940s Ayatollah Moḥammad Hosayn Borujerdi introduced reforms in the Qom ḥawẓah that centralized its finances and certification process. In the early 1960s Ayatollah Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr sought to modernize the curriculum in Najaf, but with little success, but in 1993 Ayatollah ʿAlī al-Sīstānī introduced a new...

Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad

Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad   Reference library

Louis Medoff

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,889 words

... in Iran at the time, Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi (d. 1962 ), wrote a letter to Ṭabāṭabāʾī insisting that he stop, otherwise he would cut the monthly stipends to the students attending the class. In a revealing reply letter Ṭabāṭabāʾī admitted to Borujerdi that his sole motive in coming to Qom was to teach Islamic philosophy for the purpose of countering materialist philosophy, prevalent at the time in the form of Marxism, and would not stop teaching unless Borujerdi issued a religious order ( ḥukm sharʿī ) to that effect. Borujerdi deferred and Ṭabāṭabāʾī...

Amīn, Noṣrat

Amīn, Noṣrat (1886–1983)   Reference library

Mirjam Künkler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
836 words

... (permissions) of ejtehād (independent reasoning), among them from Ayatollah Moḥammad Kazem Ḥosayni Shīrāzī ( 1873–1947 ) and Grand Ayatollah Abdolkarīm Ha’erī Yazdī ( 1859–1937 ), the founder of the Qom seminaries ( ḥawzahhā-ye ʿelmīyeh-ye Qom ). Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Ḥosayn Borujerdī ( 1875–1961 ), the leading Shīʿī marjaʿ (source of emulation) of the time, held her in highest regard and considered her on par with the leading Shīʿī scholars of her time. Ayatollah Yusuf Saneʿī ( b. 1937 ) goes so far as to rank Amīn as one of the most accomplished Shīʿī...

Kāshāni, Abol-Qāsem

Kāshāni, Abol-Qāsem (1882–1962)   Reference library

Mohammad H. Faghfoory

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
755 words

...activities against Zahedi's government resulted in his arrest and imprisonment in July 1956 on charges of cooperation with the Fidāīyān-i Islām in the assassination of Prime Minister Razmara in 1951 . However, Kāshāni's old age and the intervention of Ayatollahs Mohammad Hosayn Borujerdi and Abū al-Fazl Zanjānī saved his life. In 1958 Kāshāni's son Mustafā was mysteriously poisoned. This tragic event and disillusionment with politics caused Kāshāni to withdraw from public life. He died on 14 March 1962 . Kāshāni advocated the unity of the spiritual and temporal...

Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi

Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi   Reference library

Babak Rahimi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,774 words

...theologians such as Sayyid Abū al-Ḥasan Qazvīnī ( d. 1976 ) and, more importantly, Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī Shāhābādī ( d. 1950 ), a leading clerical figure. With the death of Ḥāʾirī in 1937 , Khomeini followed the marjiʿīyah , or religious leadership, of Ayatollah Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi ( 1875–1961 ), also known for his quietism. However, by the 1940s Khomeini had begun to create his own network of seminary students who admired him and visited his house on a regular basis. His 1943 Kashf al-asrār (Unveiling of Secrets) provided his students with an...

Khameneʾi, ʿAlī

Khameneʾi, ʿAlī (1939)   Reference library

Shahrough Akhavi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,162 words

...with various scholars in Najaf in 1957 , including Muḥsin al-Ḥakīm ( d. 1970 ) and Mahmud Shahrudi ( d. 1974 ), but he returned to Iran after about only a year and attended courses at the seminary in Qom from 1958 to 1964 . It is said that among his teachers were Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi ( d. 1962 ), as well as Ruhollah al-Musavi Khomeini ( d. 1989 ), the eventual founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI). He returned to Mashhad and likely pursued further study with Ayatollah Hadi Milani ( d. 1975 ). Although his official biography states that by that...

Wilāyat al-Faqīh

Wilāyat al-Faqīh   Reference library

Roy P. Mottahedeh and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,125 words

...Mirzā Ḥasan Shīrāzī ( d. 1896 ), showed the political muscle of this office when, following his 1891 ruling, he forced the ruler of Iran, Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh (r. 1848–1896 ), to cancel a tobacco concession to the British. However, it was only while Ayatollah Moḥammad Ḥosayn Borujerdi was the “source of emulation” from 1947 to 1962 that it became clear that a single individual could turn this office into a source of ultimate authority over the overwhelming majority of Twelver Shīʿīs. If this office represented the authority of the absent Twelfth Imam, who...

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