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Nadar

1820–1910), French photographer, and a central figure in the extraordinary expansion of photography in the mid‐19th century. An exact contemporary of Charles Nègre and Gustave Le ...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( Gutierrez de Pineda 1975 ). Extramarital Sex Infidelity is an important element in a Colombian marriage (González 1998 ). Murillo ( 1993 ) found that there were three males for every one female who engaged in extramarital sexual relationships. Nadar and Palacio ( 1989 ) found the same results. Nadar and Palacio also found that 30% of separations were a result of infidelity. Findings indicate that there is a greater incidence of infidelity for men as the socioeconomic levels rise higher. For women, infidelity is more common at the upper-middle-class...

Upper Cloth Revolt of 1859 (Melmundu Samaram)

Upper Cloth Revolt of 1859 (Melmundu Samaram)   Reference library

Selvister Ponnumuthan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Nadar women and Izhava women were desirous of having the freedom of dress. They were not permitted this by caste rules, which were supported by government regulations. The Nairs complained to the government about the Nadars regarding clothes. The government issued an order in 1813 allowing the Nadars and Izhavas to wear jackets called Kupayam like the Christian, Shonaga, and Mopla women. However, the Nadars were not satisfied with that proclamation. Under the leadership of Muthukutty, known as ‘Vaikunda Swami’, and the Christian missionaries, the Nadars...

Ringeltaube, Wilhelm Tobias

Ringeltaube, Wilhelm Tobias (8 August 1770)   Reference library

Samuel Jayakumar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... Dalit * convert called Vedamanickam * became his chief catechist. From 1810 , the untouchable Shannar (now Nadar) communities embraced the gospel of Christ, and a number of chapels were built and schools were started. In 1815 , there were 1,019 converts, seven chapels, and twelve native catechists and schoolmasters. Ringeltaube left India once for all in 1816 , but paved the way for a great mass movement among the Nadars in 1817 , when his successor Charles Mead arrived. Ringeltaube's end is shrouded in mystery, but he is remembered for...

London Missionary Society

London Missionary Society   Reference library

D. Arthur Jeyakumar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... India * , Southeast Asia, South and East Africa, and the South Sea islands. One of its mission fields in India was in the former Travancore state, wherein during the middle of nineteenth century, it played a key role in getting the rights for low-caste women such as the Shanars (Nadars) to wear upper-cloth to cover their breasts, which led to the empowerment of women. With a view to make the women converts from the oppressed groups stand on their own legs economically, particularly in India, the LMS started programmes such as weaving, knitting, and embroidery....

Hindu–Christian Movements

Hindu–Christian Movements   Reference library

Roger E. Hedlund

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Christianity. In Tamil Nadu in 1857 , one Arumainayagam Sattampillai broke away from the Anglicans at Nazareth to found the Hindu– Christian Church * , also known as Nattu Sabai * , which incorporated a number of Jewish Old Testament practices along with Hindu rituals and Nadar mythology. At Madras, O. Kandaswamy Chetti , who openly confessed his attachment to Christ but declined baptism, founded the Fellowship of the Followers of Jesus to strengthen the unity of those among the Hindu community who shared an attachment with Christ as the fulfilment of...

Hindu–christian Church (Nattu Sabai)

Hindu–christian Church (Nattu Sabai)   Reference library

Y. Vincent Kumaradoss

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,339 words

...Church (Nattu Sabai) The Hindu–Christian Church of Lord Jesus, founded at Prakasapuram in 1857 , was rooted in a rural setting in Tirunelveli district, a location that constituted a fertile field for the conversion of a large number of Shanars (now known as Nadars) who suffered severe social disabilities and economic deprivation in the indigenous structure. The rapid and extensive growth of Christianity among the Shanars gave rise to specific Christian settlements or ‘towns of refuge’ that accorded protection and offered facilities to search for...

Intersectional Studies

Intersectional Studies   Reference library

Marianne Bjelland Kartzow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,147 words

...oppression parameters are connected and identities are constructed by complex intersections of social categories—has been vibrant in feminist biblical interpretation for several decades, as for example articulated by the Hebrew Bible scholar Sarojini Nadar: “racism is sexism is classism is homophobia” ( Nadar, 2009 , p. 226). What Is Intersectionality? Within recent interdisciplinary research the concept of intersectionality has gained increasing currency. When white Western feminists in the 1960s and 1970s started to criticize male-centrism, their insights...

Historiography and Bibliography: South Asian Christianity

Historiography and Bibliography: South Asian Christianity   Reference library

Chandra Mallampalli

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,641 words

...in Tamil Nadu * observed caste distinctions during mass and other ceremonial contexts. Rather predictably, such accommodation was welcomed by higher ranking Vellala converts, but opposed by lower ranking Parava fishermen, Shanars (toddy tappers, who were later called Nadars), and Pariah groups. Occasionally, tensions between these groups erupted into heated legal disputes. In a recent study on Christians in south India, Chandra Mallampalli documents how the Indian judiciary defined the parameters of Christian identity through litigation concerning...

Religious Regulation in France

Religious Regulation in France   Reference library

Paul Christopher Manuel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
12,236 words

...less prominent place on Montmartre in 1926, and destroyed in 1941 by the proclerical Vichy collaborationist government. Most recently, in 2001, the Paris City Council voted to place a new statue of Chevalier Lefebvre de la Barre in Montmartre, close to the basilica at the Square Nadar. 15. There was a pro-Catholic political party in the Fourth Republic, known as the Popular Republican Movement ( Mouvement Républicain Populaire ), founded after the war to support Christian values. It was disbanded in 1967. 16. For more information, see Documentation...

Sisley, Alfred

Sisley, Alfred (30 October 1839)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,547 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Limited Company of Artists: Painters, Sculptors and Engravers (Société anonyme des artistes peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs) and deciding to hold an independent exhibition at their own expense. The premises they chose comprised a suite of vast rooms occupied by the photographer Nadar at 35, Boulevard des Capucines in Paris. The group exhibition opened there on 15 April 1875 and created a public scandal. It marked a crucial date in the history of modern art, as it was at this point that a hostile columnist—aiming the term at the painters of the new school as an...

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