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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Jus ad Bellum

Jus ad Bellum   Reference library

Caron E. Gentry

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,230 words

...“declared that European powers were not free to wage war in the Americas,” and the “Geneva arbitration” ( 1872 ), which forced Britain to pay the US reparations for Britain's support of the Confederacy during the US Civil War ( Bellamy 2006 :99). Under the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions a state's right to wage war was “tacitly accepted” but it was limited via “a system of arbitration” ( Bellamy 2006 :98). Further, after World War I and the establishment of the League of Nations, jus ad bellum became the priority by strengthening the requirement of...

Transformations of War: Perspectives from International Political Sociology

Transformations of War: Perspectives from International Political Sociology   Reference library

Vivienne Jabri

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,081 words

...‘international community’, represented in practice by ad hoc, mostly regional, coalitions of interested partners,” while the latter are “aimed at the establishment of viable local totalities in the void left by the collapse of past structures, and strive to reassert the lost meaning of space.” While the former seek to constitute a relocated sovereign authority, now globally rendered, through the practice of war, the latter point to the reassertion of the local and the particular, utilizing violence in the effort to reconstitute community often in contexts of...

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda   Reference library

Steve Chan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,839 words

..., and Reed, W. (2001) War and Rivalry among Great Powers. American Journal of Political Science 45 (2), 457–69. Levy, J.S. (1989) The Causes of War: A Review of Theories and Evidence. In P.E. Tetlock , J.L. Husbands , R. Jervis , P.C. Stern , and C. Tilly (eds.) Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War . New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 209–333. Levy, J.S. (2008) Preventive War and Democratic Politics. International Studies Quarterly 52 (1), 1–24. Levy, J.S. , and Gochal, J.R. (2001) Democracy and Preventive War: Israel and the 1956...

Regime Type, Foreign Policy, and International Relations

Regime Type, Foreign Policy, and International Relations   Reference library

Joe D. Hagan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,936 words

...the existing order) are likely to employ exceptional political tactics such as diversionary strategies expressing nationalism and elite bargaining strategies centered on political logrolling to unify establishment interests. The prolonged impact of this pattern of politics is likely to be either war with other powers or imperial ventures such as colonial wars. In sharp contrast to the optimism of the democratic peace literature, Mansfield and Snyder offer a pessimistic scenario in which the collapse of authoritarian regimes frequently exacerbates...

Territory and Geography

Territory and Geography   Reference library

Jaroslav Tir and John A. Vasquez

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,483 words

...have a higher percentage of militarized confrontations and of wars than the typical pair of major states. Most and Starr ( 1980 ) find that states that border warring states in one period are apt to become involved in a war in a subsequent period. This supports the claim that contiguity is a factor in the diffusion of war. The findings on contiguity are consistent with the claim that the more proximate the dispute, the more likely war. The most extensive evidence on contiguity and war is provided by Bremer ( 1992 ). Of several variables, he finds that...

Nuclear Strategy

Nuclear Strategy   Reference library

Patrick M. Morgan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,684 words

...was the military preparations for fighting limited nuclear wars, which led to requests for a horde of tactical nuclear weapons. Third was the enlarging target base for strategic weapons as the opponent’s strategic forces grew, its command systems multiplied, its economy developed, and its communications systems proliferated. The military establishments used a war-fighting perspective because of their natural focus on possible failures of deterrence, and thus on fighting the resulting wars. That highlighted the mission of defending the nation and...

International Organizations and Preventing War

International Organizations and Preventing War   Reference library

Martin S. Edwards and Jonathan M. DiCicco

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,219 words

...case of war prevention when we see one? Collective security attempts that fail to prevent war are easily identified, because war occurs. Identifying cases in which war was a distinct possibility but never occurred is a crucial (if difficult) task for researchers of collective security, international organizations, and the prevention of war. International Organizations, Peacekeeping, and Preventing War The UN system has not proven to be a reliable collective security mechanism for preventing wars through deterrence or punishment of aggressors, but it...

Nationalisms in International Conflict

Nationalisms in International Conflict   Reference library

Cathie Carmichael

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,639 words

...driven by (external) political agendas (see, for example, Ramet 2005 :76–107). Bosnia, the First World War and the Crisis of Citizenship in Europe In the nineteenth century, as Ottoman imperial power collapsed in the Balkans, different national groups and states vied to replace its hegemony. This struggle was labeled the “Eastern Question” ( Marriott 1940 ) and preoccupied the European diplomatic communities until the establishment of the modern Balkan states and of Turkey in 1923 . Horror at atrocities committed by national groups during this...

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War   Reference library

Brandon C. Prins

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...generalizing across historical eras about crisis conditions. Figure 1 A comparison of MID, Fatal MID, ICB, and UCDP incidents over time Michael Brecher led the way with the establishment of the ICB project in 1975 . In a similar way to the MID effort, Brecher clearly envisioned the systematic study of crises as being part of a more general effort to understand escalation to war ( Brecher and Wilkenfeld 1982 ). However, while the MID project emphasizes international structure over agency, attention to leader decisions, motivations, and perceptions...

Sea Power

Sea Power   Reference library

Eric Grove

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,892 words

...and wherever they may be necessary for the prosecution of the war.” Such a zone through which ships might pass with safety could be small or large. He echoed Corbett in saying “that complete control of a restricted zone is rarely established, and that it is far more common for control in a zone to be in dispute than undisputed.” Where a zone was established, our own commercial and military seaborne traffic will be able to pass in reasonable safety. But there is a further effect of the establishment of such a zone. It will automatically bring about the denial to...

Revolutions in Warfare

Revolutions in Warfare   Reference library

Emily O. Goldman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,197 words

...sum of its parts” ( Blaker 2007 :51). Cebrowski saw network centric warfare as a theory of war. The Revolutionaries and their Critics The “revolutionaries” in the US defense establishment – Andrew Marshall , GEN John Shalikashvili , VADM William Owens , VADM Arthur Cebrowski , and SECDEF Donald Rumsfeld – all believed that the military systems, operations, organizations, and force structures that dominated major military establishments during the Cold War would be superseded by new, far more capable means and methods of warfare and by greatly...

Realism and Security

Realism and Security   Reference library

Stephen M. Walt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,705 words

...in Soviet foreign policy and the establishment of a “security community” within and between North America and Western Europe ( Koslowski and Kratochwil 1994 ; Adler and Barnett 1998 ). Realists generally disagree with these interpretations, arguing that material decline played a more important role in ending the Cold War and emphasizing the potential for conflict that still remains (e.g., Wohlforth 1994 –5 ). Though not normally described as constructivist works, Mueller’s important discussions of the obsolescence of war ( 1986 ; 2004) also suggest that...

Russia and Foreign Policy

Russia and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Robert H. Donaldson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,989 words

...of Troubles in the seventeenth century through the Crimean and Russo-Japanese wars until World War I, Russian history teaches the dangers that overextension and war pose for internal stability. Sometimes undertaken to divert popular attention from internal problems, war more often than not exacerbates these problems – ultimately, for the tsars, causing the collapse of an empire once regarded as the mightiest in Europe ( Kennedy 1987 ). Soviet Foreign Policy through World War II Just as the tsarist foreign policy tradition is one source of the perceptions...

The Media and Postmodern Conflict

The Media and Postmodern Conflict   Reference library

Chiara de Franco

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,604 words

... Mermin ( 1999 ) , this concept explains Hallin’s famous work on the Vietnam War. Hallin ( 1986 ) , indeed, argues that, contrary to its powerful myth, the Vietnam War was not lost in the living room because the coverage changed from support of to opposition to the government. Rather, the shift can be explained as a reflection of the increasing divergence within the US Congress. The media simply mirrored the internal divisions of the political establishment and the coverage of the war, although critical and detached, was ultimately determined by that. This...

Technology and International Relations

Technology and International Relations   Reference library

Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,305 words

...in the power configuration between states. They considered five areas to illustrate their conclusions: the establishment and security of nation-states, European expansion, European contraction, bipolarity in the international system, and the emergence of new configurations. They were in agreement on the significance of navigational advances during the formation of the modern European states system. The coincidence of revolutions and intermittent wars with the invention and application of steam power was also acknowledged. The industrial revolution was...

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes   Reference library

Zeev Maoz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,472 words

...to the probability of war outbreak (e.g., the literature on arms races and war, rivalries, and war, alliances and war, etc.). Alternatively ( Senese and Vasquez 2008 ), all variables in the process are bunched together on the right-hand side of a single equation (with war outbreak as the dependent variable). These tests establish whether – in isolation, or controlling for other variables that are included in the steps-to-war framework – a specific factor or a specific set of factors posited by this framework is correlated with dyadic war outbreak. They tell us...

Statebuilding and Nationbuilding

Statebuilding and Nationbuilding   Reference library

Catherine Goetze and Dejan Guzina

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,730 words

...al. 2005 ); on the other hand, several analyses stating that contemporary civil wars are “new” in their mixture of the privatization of violence, state destruction, and forms of violence have led to the inference that these wars do not construct states as sixteenth- or seventeenth-century wars did in Europe; rather, they are “state-decay wars” ( Kaldor 1999 ; Münkler 2002 ). Both strands of research have been particularly influential in establishing a political consensus about statebuilding as security policy. In both arguments, weak or failing statehood...

Hegemony and the Global Political Economy

Hegemony and the Global Political Economy   Reference library

Richard Saull

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,656 words

...Bretton Woods and the relative decline of the material capacities of the US economy, the United States has remained geopolitically ascendant, especially since the end of the Cold War. Further, and challenging HST expectations, a new regime of globalized accumulation has emerged since the 1970s and the United States has been at the forefront of its promotion through the establishment of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) and in shaping the ideological prescriptions of the Bretton Woods institutions. Stephen Gill ( 2003 ;...

Russian Security and Nuclear Policies: Successor to the Superpower Arsenal?

Russian Security and Nuclear Policies: Successor to the Superpower Arsenal?   Reference library

Mariya Y. Omelicheva

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,024 words

...Russian current nuclear posture, including its decision to maintain a strong nuclear arsenal. The disintegration of the Soviet Union and political chaos that followed the breakup inflicted severe damage on the Russian armed forces. The first war in Chechnya and fierce infighting in the military and defense establishments destroyed their fighting capability and soldiers’ morale ( Cimbala and Rainow 2007 :42). It was obvious that the Russian army was in too woeful a condition to defend Russia's territory and interests. The nuclear weapons were needed to...

War, Conflict, and Human Rights

War, Conflict, and Human Rights   Reference library

Chandra Lekha Sriram, Olga Martin-Ortega, and Johanna Herman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,058 words

...debates among religious, philosophical, and international legal scholars about the nature of a just war, and appropriate conduct in war, which also have come to underpin IHL in particular. International legal scholars dating back to Grotius considered not only whether humanitarian purposes might justify resort to armed conflict, but the appropriate treatment of combatants and noncombatants in conflict, once initiated ( Grotius 1625 /2005 ). Debates about just war by religious scholars, including appropriate conduct during conflict, are continued in contemporary...

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