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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Vietnam War

Vietnam War   Reference library

Anthony Lake

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,233 words

...however, his impassioned reference to an earlier war showed how strongly it still weighed. Like the memorial on the Mall in Washington, D.C. , and despite the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two nations in the mid- 1990 s, Vietnam continued to occupy a haunting place in the American memory, and it likely will do so in the new millennium. [ See also Eisenhower, Dwight D. ; Military-Industrial Complex ; Nixon, Richard M. ; and Reagan, Ronald . ] Bibliography Duiker, William J. Sacred War : Nationalism and Revolution in a Divided...

Great Society

Great Society   Reference library

Margaret Weir

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,408 words

...of the Great Society was the War on Poverty. Although many of the components of the attack on poverty were not new, the effort to package them into a concerted effort to end poverty was novel. The charter legislation for the War on Poverty, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 , created programs for youth job training, public service employment for youth, a volunteer national services corps, and a new Office of Equal Opportunity, operating out of the Executive Office of the President. The most innovative aspect of the War on Poverty was the community...

Republican Party

Republican Party   Reference library

Nicol C. Rae

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,770 words

...alignments continued to erode under the strains of racial conflict and the Vietnam War. After Vice President Richard M. Nixon failed to hold the presidency in 1960 , new conservative forces in the GOP based in the rapidly growing South and Southwest allied with the remnants of the old midwestern Taft constituency to nominate the conservative ideologue Senator Barry Goldwater for the presidency in 1964 , over the strong opposition of the eastern establishment moderates, led by New York Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller . The Arizonan went down in a...

Global Economy and the United States

Global Economy and the United States   Reference library

Matthias M. Matthijs

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,747 words

...flows, as well as the establishment of two new international economic organizations: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB). The IMF was founded to provide short-term loans to help countries finance temporary balance of payments deficits and to manage international economic imbalances through oversight of the adjustable peg system, leverage use of its lending capacity, and the use of its “scarce currency” clause. The WB was founded to provide long-term loans for reconstruction and development after the war. Until about 1958 , the...

Pakistan–United States Relations

Pakistan–United States Relations   Reference library

Charles H. Kennedy

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,456 words

... will remain stubborn concerning what the establishment continues to see as its two core interests: to counter the threat of Indian hegemony; and to seek the establishment of a friendly and stable regime in Afghanistan . [ See also Afghanistan ; Al-Qaeda ; Bin Laden, Osama ; India–United States Relations ; Kashmir ; and Terrorism, Middle East . ] Bibliography Kux, Dennis. The United States and Pakistan, 1947–2000: Disenchanted Allies . (Baltimore, 2001). Rais, Rasul B. Recovering the Frontier State: War, Ethnicity, and State in Afghanistan ....

Presidency: Governing

Presidency: Governing   Reference library

James P. Pfiffner

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,162 words

...the foremost example. But the two world wars increased presidential power over a much larger military establishment. The National Security Act of 1947 created a unified Department of Defense, a Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Thus the national security policy institutions that would deal with the coming Cold War, as well as several other, “hot” wars, were in place by 1950 and would not be significantly changed until the post-9/11 era. After World War II, the exigencies of the Cold War, with the threat of surprise nuclear...

Grand Strategies, US

Grand Strategies, US   Reference library

Henry R. Nau

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,671 words

... in World War II. As the nationalist strategist Pat Buchanan argues, the United States benefited by delaying the establishment of a second front in World War II and would have benefited even more if it had stayed out of the war altogether. So, unlike realists, nationalists see no need to balance power actively around the world in order to defend the United States at home. On the other hand, if America is attacked, nationalists are fierce to strike back and destroy the enemy. They carry the revolutionary banner “Don’t Tread on Me.” In war, national...

Iranian Revolution

Iranian Revolution   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...in exile since 1964 . By January 1979 the shah was forced to flee. Khomeini returned to Iran on 1 February of that year, and after a brief armed uprising against the remnants of the shah’s army on 11–12 February, he took power. Within weeks he had proclaimed the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran , and proceeded to transform the political, social, educational, and cultural life of the country to meet what he regarded as Islamic principles. Power lay in the hands of the leading clergy and the networks of Islamic committees set up...

Russia–United States Relations

Russia–United States Relations   Reference library

Allen C. Lynch

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,413 words

...Russo-Japanese War, for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize. Roosevelt’s objective, however, was less peace than to ensure that Russia not be unduly punished for its defeat and that Japan not bleed itself to financial death by continuing the war. Rather, Roosevelt was concerned to maintain a reasonable balance of power between Russia and Japan in Northeast Asia, so as to maximize American freedom of commercial and diplomatic action in the region. The Era of the Russian Revolution, 1917 – 1920 . By the time the United States declared war on Germany (...

State Secrecy

State Secrecy   Reference library

Rahul Sagar

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,199 words

...secrecy by emphasizing that the separation of powers allowed Congress to rein in the president. However, these responses began to seem unsatisfactory, as the president’s control over official information grew rapidly during World War II and then expanded even further with the onset of the Cold War, culminating in the establishment of the classification system in 1951 . As scholars like Harold Laswell, Robert Dahl, and Francis Rourke began to express concern about the impact of these developments on American democracy, influential members of civil society,...

Middle East–United States Relations

Middle East–United States Relations   Reference library

Mahmood Monshipouri

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,942 words

...War II, the Middle East did not figure prominently in overall US strategic calculations. In the post–World War II period, however, the United States began to identify broad national interests in the Middle East, and developed strategic plans for maintaining a significant military presence in the region. Historically, US interest in the region began during the Woodrow Wilson administration ( 1913 – 1921 ), which endorsed the 1917 Balfour Declaration, initiated by the British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour , pledging support for the establishment in...

Latin America–United States Relations

Latin America–United States Relations   Reference library

Cynthia Arnson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,893 words

...was designed in large measure to structure the process of diplomatic bargaining between the United States and Sandini-sta Nicaragua , but in practice it had little effect on restricting Washington ’s freedom to maneuver in Central America . The “Procedure for the Establishment of a Firm and Lasting Peace in Central America ” (known as the Esquipulas II accords after the Guatemalan town where the five Central American chiefs of state met in mid- 1987 ) also pointedly excluded the United States . But it did succeed in restricting Washington ’s...

Bin Laden, Osama

Bin Laden, Osama   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,112 words

...attacks on US interests at the time of his death. However, it is notable that the 2011 “Arab Spring” revolutions were inspired by liberal and democratic objectives, not the establishment of an Islamic order of the kind Bin Laden had supported. [ See also Afghanistan ; Al-Qaeda ; Terrorism, Domestic ; and Terrorism, Middle East . ] Bibliography Bergen, Peter L. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama Bin Laden . (New York, 2001). Coll, Steve. The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century . (New York, 2008). National...

India–United States Relations

India–United States Relations   Reference library

Neil DeVotta

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,300 words

...foes, but rather coexisted warily as “estranged democracies” ( Kux , 1993 ). This continued until the end of the Cold War, when the new, unipolar, international system headed by the United States combined with India ’s failed socialist economy to usher in a strategic partnership that stands to significantly impact international relations during the twenty-first century. The Cold War Years. America ’s preeminent goal during the Cold War era was to contain the spread of communism. This consideration conditioned its relations with other states, and South...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

David Ottaway

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,265 words

...on these threats could be exchanged. They also agreed to establish a thirty-five-thousand-strong, US-trained security force to protect the kingdom’s vital oil and gas installations. Meanwhile, the US Air Force undertook a sweeping examination of the Kingdom’s entire military establishment, with a view to its modernization in the face of the emerging nuclear threat from Iran . Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, who came into office in December 2006 , took the lead in pressing for a major arms package. The Pentagon review resulted in a new twenty-year plan for...

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations   Reference library

Graham K. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,926 words

...determined support for US involvement in the Vietnam War and refusal to endorse the liberal, antiwar Democratic candidate in the 1972 presidential election crystallized an ill-founded but widely held belief among many liberals that unions were now part of the establishment, conservative, often corrupt, and resistant to fresh ideas. The AFL-CIO found itself without much support outside the ranks of labor when the gentle decline in labor’s strength in the thirty years after the Second World War turned into a collapse in the 1980 s. The reasons for the...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,733 words

...loud” ( Cusman , 1989 , p. A11). Yet these two large departments represent only a fraction of the national security leadership challenge. Almost every major agency in the government is involved in policies that touch on national security matters. The nation’s intelligence establishment provides vivid examples of the daunting managerial problems that a president and the NSC face in guiding the national security apparatus. The National Security Act of 1947 created a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) at the same time it set up the NSC. This law placed the CIA...

Somalia

Somalia   Reference library

Brian J. Hesse

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,482 words

...to most Somali communities. Yet, given that the traditional version of Islam in Somalia had proved incapable of transcending clan bonds, criminality, and war-economy interests, many Somalis willing embraced salafism in the hopes that it could help check incessant violence and insecurity. Businessmen in particular gave salafism a fillip, as they lent monetary support to the establishment of sharia courts to adjudicate commercial disputes and to punish behavior that ran counter to the conduct of trade. Ultimately these courts morphed into the Islamic...

Talk Radio

Talk Radio   Reference library

L.J Zigerell and David C. Barker

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,096 words

...combination that is less an innovation than a throwback to earlier times, when a partisan press dominated. [ See also Culture Wars ; Media and Politics ; New Media ; and New Right . ] Bibliography Barker, David C. Rushed to Judgment: Talk Radio, Persuasion, and American Political Behavior . (New York, 2002). Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, and Joseph N. Cappella. Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment . (Oxford, 2008). Owen, Diana. “ Talk Radio and Evaluations of President Clinton .” Political Communication 14 (1997):...

Terrorism, Domestic

Terrorism, Domestic   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,375 words

...violence goes back to the beginnings of the establishment of the republic. Militia groups like the Sons of the American Revolution might have arguably been considered as terrorists by British colonial rulers; attacks on Native American villages during the expansion of settlers across the continent would certainly also fit the definition above. The scorched-earth policies of the Northern Army during the American Civil War also aimed to terrorize civilian populations in acts reminiscent of the European “total war” of the first half of the twentieth century....

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