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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Defence Expenditure

Defence Expenditure   Reference library

Tanya Sethi and Reddy C. Rammanohar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Expenditure India’s long-standing tensions with its two largest neighbours—China and Pakistan—with whom it has fought three wars over the past five decades (with China in 1962 and with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971) have made defence spending a matter of priority for the government and the strategic establishment. Since the early 1990s, three related factors have driven spending on the defence forces. One, India’s desire to project its military force in the Indian Ocean/Asia region has made the country allocate significant amounts for replacing and augmenting...

Labour Laws

Labour Laws   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...retrench workers or even close the establishment. This chapter is of comparatively recent vintage, having been added to the IDA in 1976 when it was legislated to cover establishments that employed 300 or more workers. Subsequently the Act was amended in 1984 to cover establishments employing 100 or more workers. Since labour legislation is in the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution, amendments to the IDA at state level have resulted in further changes; for example, in West Bengal, establishments employing 50 or more workers come...

Stock Exchange

Stock Exchange   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...in 1894. Eastern India witnessed a boom in the prices of jute, tea, and coal. As the boom ended, there were differences and disputes among brokers which paved the way for the establishment of the Calcutta Stock Exchange Association in 1908 with 150 brokers. The First World War and the swadeshi industrial revolution in the early 20th century prompted the establishment of the Madras Stock Exchange in 1920 with 100 brokers. Driven by market forces, several stock exchanges came up and disappeared in India in the 20th century. Evolution of Securities...

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Policy Resolution of 1948 (that committed India to a mixed economy and recognized the role of private capital), his speech at the 1955 Avadi Congress which spoke of a ‘socialistic pattern’ for India—some with less impact than others. None, though, was more important that the establishment in 1950 of the Planning Commission, a government agency that reported directly to the prime minister, and was not accountable to Parliament—a testament to Nehru’s willingness to vest considerable policymaking powers in professional economists. Headed by the statistician P.C....

Forest Policy

Forest Policy   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and policies initiated by the British in the 19th century. The British appropriated all forests which were not on private lands for state use. This step was motivated by revenue considerations and to ensure sustained supply of timber for shipbuilding and railway sleepers. The establishment of state control ended traditional property rights of village communities which had been in place for centuries. The resulting alienation and resentment ended the customary care of forests by these communities which had been part of their culture. They responded by...

State Bank of India

State Bank of India   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...This restriction was also imposed on the Imperial Bank of India and was relaxed only after the establishment of the Reserve Bank of India in 1935 ( Ray et al. 2003 : 37). In his book, Indian Currency and Finance , Keynes had recommended the setting up of a State Bank of India and he followed it up with a note on the same subject, jointly authored with Ernest Cable, that was published as an annexure to the Report of the Chamberlain Commission just before World War I ( Keynes 1913 ; Bagchi 1989 : 162–7). The Imperial Bank was not the State Bank as conceived...

Licensing

Licensing   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...were divided into two schedules (or lists), with industries in the first schedule being subject to licensing requirements. The first schedule was an expansive list, spanning industries from fertilizers to industrial machinery. Licences were required for (i) opening new establishments, (ii) expanding capacity, (iii) changing the existing product mix, and (iv) relocating to another region. Subsequent amendments to the policy designated certain industries as being reserved for the small-scale sector and, therefore, off-limits for large investment projects,...

Famines

Famines   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...of distress before the famine became full-blown, the British government deliberately ignored the Famine Codes for political reasons. It was loath to acknowledge that its War efforts were creating vulnerabilities through inflation, nor was it willing to set aside resources for relief operations at the expense of War-related expenditure. It was only after Independence and the establishment of a democratic polity that the principles embodied in the Famine Codes became fully operational in India. Every time a crisis loomed, the government intervened in multiple...

Savings and Investment

Savings and Investment   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...subsequently, rigidities remain. The capital market, on the other hand, has been a major vehicle for converting savings into private investment. It has experienced phenomenal growth and the risk and exigencies associated with its formative years have been controlled with the establishment and functioning of an appropriate regulatory authority. There are increasing pressures to open the insurance market to international competition but its attitudes towards risk are a good reason for the government to take a cautious stance on the matter. There has been...

Business and Growth Rate Cycles

Business and Growth Rate Cycles   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,249 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the government owned roughly half of the economy’s productive capacity. Even the private sector was hemmed in by myriad regulations and rampant distortions of the free market, such as controls on prices and interest rates and extensive licensing procedures for the establishment Figure 1 Indian Leading and Coincident Indexes (1992 = 100) Note : Shaded areas represent Indian business cycle recessions. A minus symbol denotes leads while a plus shows lags. Figure 2 Indian Leading and Coincident Indexes, Growth Rates (%) Note : Shaded areas represent...

Steel Industry

Steel Industry   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and initiative of the Indian state as per the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956. This policy reserved the expansion of the integrated steel plant sector (that is, the route of steel making via pig iron making, starting with iron ore as raw material in a single production establishment) in the public sector. TISCO and IISCO were, however, allowed to carry on their business as private steel-making companies. In view of the inelasticity of India’s traditional exports and the shortage of domestic savings and foreign exchange, the growth of the steel industry...

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