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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Romulus

Romulus (Europe)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Sabine maidens at a festival. After ruling for forty years Romulus vanished and became the god Quirinus. During the late fourth century bc the Romulus myth first rivalled that of Aeneas as the supposed city founder. The she wolf had been the symbol of nationality since the establishment of the Republic in 510 bc . Although imperial patronage gave to Aeneas the official glory (on the nine hundredth anniversary of the traditional foundation of Rome in 148 , coins were issued which gave pride of place to the city's Trojan origins) interest in Romulus and...

Mahābhārata

Mahābhārata   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Asian Mythology

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Current Version:
2002

...dīkś ) for a sacrifice. The ensuing war between the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas is prepared by Kṛṣṇa who, as the avatar of Viṣṇu ( see Avatars of Viṣṇu ), knows it must take place in order that Śrī (Prosperity) can be restored to Earth. Early in the great battle, Arjuna begins to doubt the value of the inevitable carnage and has to be convinced by the divine revelations of Kṛṣṇa—his charioteer—of the necessity of the sacrifice in the interest of dharma . These revelations form the Bhagavadgītā . The war is the war to end wars, resulting in the victory of the...

Mahabharata

Mahabharata   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...( diksa ) for a sacrifice. The ensuing war between the Pandavas and Kauravas is prepared by Krishna, who, as the avatar of Vishnu, knows it must take place in order that Shri (Prosperity) can be restored to earth. Early in the great battle, Arjuna begins to doubt the value of the inevitable carnage and must be convinced through the divine revelations of Krishna—his charioteer —of the necessity of the sacrifice in the interest of dharma. These revelations form the Bhagavadgita . The war is “the war to end wars,” resulting in the victory of the Pandavas...

Doomsday

Doomsday   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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2003

...ended ( De Tempore Ratione , cited in Thompson, 1996 : 32). However, there is no evidence of millennial panic in 1000 or 1033. Doomsday is of course inseparable from the concept of the Second Coming and the establishment of a just and godly world. These ideas have strong political implications; they were conspicuous in England during the Civil War and Commonwealth, but after the Restoration lost all prestige ( Thomas , 1971 : 140–6). Doomsday preoccupations periodically recurred at the level where popular religion and folklore meet, causing anxiety about...

Lloyd, Albert Lancaster

Lloyd, Albert Lancaster (1908–82)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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2003

...is strongly in evidence in all his work, which did not endear him to the broadcasting establishment of the day, but he was well known and respected in left-wing intellectual circles. Lloyd has encountered traditional songs in his travels, particularly in Australia, and even before the Second World War he had begun to research into the history and morphology of the genre. Each of his four major books in the field was extremely influential in setting the agenda for the post-war folk-song revival in which he and others like Ewan MacColl played a crucial...

Folk-Song Society

Folk-Song Society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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2003

...rather than performance and teaching were the objectives. The first four Vice-Presidents chosen— Sir John Stainer , Sir Alexander Mackenzie , Sir Hubert Parry , and Dr Villiers Stanford —demonstrated the intended standing of the new Society in the respectable musical establishment of the late Victorian era. The Society's annual Journal was launched in 1899 , and for the rest of the Society's existence it served as the major source of raw material for the folk-song movement. A pattern soon evolved which was adhered to for many years. The proof sheets...

God

God   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

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...that is, not until the sixth century b.c.e. And even then it can be argued that the firm establishment of monotheism in Judaism required the rabbinical or Talmudic process of the first century b.c.e. to the sixth century c.e. Whether one among many or one alone, the god of the Hebrew Bible possessed many familiar Middle Eastern characteristics. He was a storm - weather god who could push aside the sea and lead with a pillar of fire. He was a god of war who could mercilessly kill the enemies of the Israelites. He was a fertility god who could...

Canaanite mythology

Canaanite mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

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...wife also held the title of “Mother of the gods,” a title that presumably came with her role as El's consort and activating aspect. It is in the so-called Baal cycle that we find more complex and complete stories suggesting creation, or at least the early establishment of divine order through the kind of war in heaven that also exists in Anatolian , Mesopotamian, Hebrew, Christian , and other Middle Eastern mythologies, as well as in the mythologies of Indo-Europeans . It is clear that by the late second millennium b.c.e. , Baal, like Marduk in...

Sharp, Cecil James

Sharp, Cecil James (1859–1924)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Current Version:
2003

...there in 1915 and again in 1916 to start an intensive and highly successful song collecting campaign in the Appalachian Mountains, which continued in 1917 and 1918 . After the First World War, Sharp's position as leading expert on folk-song and dance was secure, and his principles and aims increasingly accepted by the musical and educational establishments, and his appointment as Occasional Inspector of Training Colleges in Folk Song and Dancing gave him the opportunity to inculcate his views into the future teaching force. He was still active in...

King Arthur

King Arthur   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

... Holy Grail , the cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper. Although in all likelihood he had pagan roots, Arthur was one of many warrior heroes— Roland of the Song of Roland, Joan of Arc, and the Cid of the great Spanish national epic are other examples—who emerged from the establishment of Christianity in Europe. In fact, the pagan heroes were all assimilated in one way or another by the retelling of their stories by Christian writers such as the Beowulf poet and Snorri Sturluson in the north. Central to the King Arthur myth is his role as the “once and...

East Asia

East Asia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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2003

...generated by Buddhism. When Emperor T'ang Hui-ch'ang decided that the religious establishment had grown too large in ad 845, his course of action was straightforward enough. All monks and nuns in China, numbering 260,500, were laicized; thereafter, strong control was exercised over the affairs of religious orders, extending to the recruitment of personnel and ownership of property. While such scepticism meant that Chinese history has been unblemished by religious wars, it has taken its toll of imaginative speculation. Mythology tended to remain the...

Irish mythology

Irish mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...Ireland escaped the Roman invasions, and Christianity seems to have had a minimal effect on the culture until Saint Patrick arrived there in the mid-fifth century. Finally, the hereditary filidh continued to preserve and orally transmit the ancient stories well after the establishment of Christianity. The Irish mythological narratives were first written down in the vernacular, adapted into the Latin alphabet, by monks in the sixth century c.e. It can be argued, in fact, that by the middle of the seventh century, all or most of what we now think of as...

America

America   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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2003

...sacred rocks and for several generations of brother-sister marriage, the Inca family ruled as a petty dynasty. The assault on the city occurred when the other tribes living in the vicinity appreciated the growing pretensions of the Incas. The consequence of the struggle was establishment of Inca authority throughout the Andes mountains. Archaeology has made it apparent that the Incas were late comers in the history of pre-Columbian Peru. For two millennia before their seizure of Cuzco, Indian peoples had been farming, weaving cloth, worshipping in impressive...

song

song   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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2003

.... Until the late 19th century, it was generally agreed within the musical establishment that England, alone amongst the countries which comprise the British Isles, possessed no traditional folk-song or music. The campaign to refute this misconception gathered pace as the turn of the century approached, culminating in the formation of the Folk-Song Society in 1898 , and the great collecting boom of the Edwardian period, led by enthusiasts such as Cecil Sharp and Ralph Vaughan Williams ( see also song revival). As the collectors began reporting, and...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...tradition dating from the Trojan War all the more complete and harmonious because its historians had taken care to make it so. The embellishment of the legend of Roman origins received state recognition in 239 bc , when the Senate granted its protection to the Acarnanians, harassed by the Aetolians, because they alone of the Greeks had held aloof from hostilities against the Trojans, the ancestors of the Roman people. The classic treatment of this myth occurs in Virgil's Aeneid, composed to celebrate the establishment of the Empire by Augustus in 31 bc...

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