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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the Atlantic Beer Garden, entertained...

Cummings, Richard Osborn

Cummings, Richard Osborn (1908–1973)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a reference ever since its publication. It was republished by Arno Press in 1970 . The book had a major influence on the National Nutrition Conference for Defense at the beginning of World War II. This group put forward the idea of “recommending the establishment of the allowances for good nutrition as a national goal.” In short, this book contributed to the establishment of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which evolved into today's Dietary Reference Intakes. In the early 1940s Richard Cummings worked with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the U.S....

Coffeehouses

Coffeehouses   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the kaveh kanes , as fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Arab establishments were known, coffeehouses have provided a place for people to socialize over a cup of coffee and a bite to eat. The coffeehouse combined with café has a longer European pedigree, but the American Revolution was planned in Boston's Green Tavern, a coffeehouse that also served ale. In the 1950s smoky, atmospheric coffeehouses in cities such as San Francisco and New York fueled hipsters and beatniks. In the Vietnam War era, GI coffeehouses outside army bases promoted antiwar...

Harvey, Fred

Harvey, Fred (1835–1901)   Reference library

James D. Porterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...trains in 1888 , Harvey negotiated to staff and provision those eating establishments as well. When the AT&SF acquired rail access to the rim of the Grand Canyon, Harvey created, in 1903 , the recreational and boarding accommodations there. His firm eventually also established corporate and public eating establishments that stretched from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, California. Harvey's contributions to American culinary history are of a pioneering nature. His establishments and his reputation for quality played a critical role in attracting riders...

Grog

Grog   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Other alcoholic beverages, such as arrack, were frequently substituted for the rum in grog, and sometimes other ingredients, such as sugar and lime, were added. Grogshops had sprung up in American ports before the Revolutionary War. They were frequented by sailors and were considered among the most unsavory establishments in American cities. As the price of whiskey declined during the nineteenth century, it was often substituted for rum. Grogshop owners sometimes adulterated the whiskey in the grog with logwood (a dye), berries, tobacco, and strychnine....

Sloppy Joe

Sloppy Joe   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Angell , the founder of Maid-Rite restaurants, in 1926 . During the Great Depression and World War II, ground beef provided an economical way to stretch meat and ensured the popularity of the sandwich. As for the name “sloppy joe,” some say it was inspired by one of two famous bars named Sloppy Joe's in the 1930s—one in Havana, Cuba, and the other in Key West, Florida. The name caught on throughout the United States, and based on the number of establishments that subsequently became known as “Sloppy Joe's” by the late 1930s, it is likely that the...

Liquor Cabinets

Liquor Cabinets   Reference library

Jane C. Otto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cellarette. Prohibition ( 1920–1933 ) generated an active underground movement of illegal alcohol consumption, as well as new methods for keeping illegal alcohol safe. Storage facilities ranged from subterranean storerooms to revolving faux walls (“libraries”) in drinking establishments and private homes. Cellarettes enjoyed a renaissance, in the form of new variations that included trompe l’œil cabinetry designed to transform ordinary household furnishings—drop-leaf tables, bookshelves, and end tables—into objects that could conceal contraband substances....

Franey, Pierre

Franey, Pierre (1921–1996)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the time the Fair closed in October 1940 , Europe was at war, and France was occupied by German armed forces. Rather than return to occupied France, Franey and Henri Soulé, the Pavillon's maître d’, remained in the United States. In October 1941 Soulé opened a restaurant on New York's fashionable Upper East Side. Hoping to trade on the popularity of the Pavillon at the World's Fair, he named the establishment Le Pavillon. Soulé hired Pierre Franey as a cook, but when the United States entered the war in December 1941 , Franey enlisted in the U.S. Army...

Spam

Spam   Reference library

Carolyn Wyman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...wrapping them together with a belt of seaweed, Spam sushi, or musubi , is as common in convenience stores and take-out stands in Hawaii as hot dogs are in these establishments on the mainland. The world's Spam-eating capital is Guam. Annual per capita consumption in this U.S. territory is eight pounds. Automobile dealers in Guam use trunkfuls of Spam as sales promotions. Selling Spam. After World War II, Hormel hired former servicewomen to sell Spam and other products. That group grew into a traveling sales force of sixty musically talented women who starred...

Nathan's Famous

Nathan's Famous   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...millions thronged Coney Island in the summer, Nathan's became a local landmark, but Coney Island gradually fell into decline after World War II. Feltman's closed in 1954 and the following year, the company announced that it had sold in 1955 its millionth hot dog. Nathan's began to expand, opening outlets in other cities. The Nathan's chain had a growth spurt during the 1980s, when investors encouraged the establishment of larger restaurants, Nathan's Famous.  Hirofumi Nakajima ( right ) of Kofu, Japan, competes against Ed “The Animal” Krachie of New York...

Cocktails

Cocktails   Reference library

Dale DeGroff

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to an urban society. Immigration. Driven by the potato famine in the British islands and the disastrous economy of the post-Napoleonic Wars on the Continent, waves of immigrants flocked to the cities of the Northeast, and they brought strong communal drinking traditions with them—the pubs of the British islands and the beer halls of Germany. Ghettos in the cities were soon filled with illegal drinking establishments and social clubs called “blind pigs.” The enormous potential for a political power base in these ghettos did not go unnoticed by the...

Rodale, Jerome I.

Rodale, Jerome I.   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of World War II, Jerome Rodale began publishing a magazine titled Organic Gardening . The war effort required massive food production in order to feed soldiers and civilians, as well as foreign allies. To help meet the nation's food needs, the federal government encouraged Americans to grow fruits and vegetables in backyard “Victory Gardens.” An estimated 80 percent of the population responded, and in 1943 , these gardens produced 40 percent of the fresh produce consumed in America. Since little synthetic fertilizer was available during the war—the...

Diners

Diners   Reference library

Randy Garbin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to the decreased need for prep work and lack of demand. The diner's revival began in the mid-1970s, with the almost simultaneous establishment of upscale diners, the publication of diner-related book titles, and the growing ubiquity of diner iconography in the mass media. This higher profile attracted people who were increasingly bored with homogeneous fast-food meals and nostalgic for basic meals in locally owned establishments. As people rejected the haute cuisine of the 1980s during the recession of the early 1990s, the American diner serving “comfort...

Central Asian Food

Central Asian Food   Reference library

Russell Zanca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...localized Central Asian culinary traditions become better known in North America. Afghan dishes, themselves an interesting fusion of northern Indian and Iranian ingredients with many local variants, have been attracting Americans to dining establishments since the 1970s. Renewed interest in Afghan cuisine accompanies the “war on terror.” Breads, kebabs, yogurt sauces, and vegetarian dishes, including those made with eggplant, okra, and squashes, tend to be among the favorites. Most Central Asians are Muslims, so pork does not appear on their tables. Lamb and...

Saloons

Saloons   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...kind of saloon that the cocktail, a uniquely American invention, had its origins. After the Civil War, the saloon evolved to meet the needs of urban working-class males. Saloons Interior of a Saloon.  Mixologist at work, New York City. Engraving from George Augustus Sala, America Revisited , 3rd ed. (London, 1883), vol. 1, facing p. 183. dominated poor working-class neighborhoods, serving both low-cost food and drink to factory workers. These establishments were mostly frequented by male patrons, who spent many of their nonworking hours drinking beer, cheap...

Luncheonettes

Luncheonettes   Reference library

Bruce Kraig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Strictly speaking, luncheonettes are small restaurants, the suffix implying size, where light meals are served at lunchtime. The term does not always refer to freestanding dining spots but could mean food service counters within other establishments, such as Woolworth's five-and-ten stores. Restaurants specializing in midday meals appeared in America with industrialization and the intensification of office work in cities and towns. In the early to mid-nineteenth century the concept of lunch, dining away from home during the workday, became regulated...

Maxwell House

Maxwell House   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a wholesale grocery firm. In 1884 , he moved to Nashville, Tennessee, and in 1892 approached the Maxwell House, a prestigious Nashville hotel, with his special blend of coffee. Impressed with consumer reaction, the hotel manager allowed Cheek to name his blend after the establishment. Cheek quit his job in 1893 and formed a partnership with John Neal . The Cheek-Neal Coffee Company established a successful business in the Nashville area, opening additional roasting facilities in Houston, Texas; Jacksonville, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, by 1916 ....

Taverns

Taverns   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...themselves after long services. The terms tavern, inn, and ordinary did not mean the same thing throughout the colonies. In New England and New York, “tavern” was usually used; in Pennsylvania, “inn” was more common; and “ordinary” was the general term in the South. Small establishments that did not offer lodging, stable, or other services but sold only alcohol were called tippling-houses or petty ordinaries. In 1714 Boston had a population of ten thousand and supported thirty-four taverns. As the population grew during the eighteenth century and people...

Morrill Land-Grant College Acts

Morrill Land-Grant College Acts   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...subjects related to farming. By 1870 all thirty-seven states had or were planning land-grant colleges, but six years later most of these projects were still struggling to get off the ground. As additional states joined the Union they were also given land to finance the establishment of state colleges. The original legislation did not fund ongoing operating expenses at land-grant colleges, and this made it difficult for many to stay open without state appropriations. Neither did the legislation require specific courses in agriculture or mechanical arts....

Roadhouses

Roadhouses   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a brothel, and whether the colorful characters within are cowboys, showgirls, or Hell's Angels, one thing is certain: the roadhouse is a transgressive space—quite literally, in fact, in that such establishments are often found on the lawless outskirts of town. Technically, however, the term “roadhouse” is rather more prosaic, referring simply to an establishment located on the side of the road to provide some combination of refreshment, lodging, and entertainment; in that sense, it may apply equally well to a colonial tavern, Gold Rush–era boardinghouse,...

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