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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the Atlantic Beer Garden, entertained...

Cummings, Richard Osborn

Cummings, Richard Osborn (1908–1973)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a reference ever since its publication. It was republished by Arno Press in 1970 . The book had a major influence on the National Nutrition Conference for Defense at the beginning of World War II. This group put forward the idea of “recommending the establishment of the allowances for good nutrition as a national goal.” In short, this book contributed to the establishment of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which evolved into today's Dietary Reference Intakes. In the early 1940s Richard Cummings worked with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the U.S....

Romulus

Romulus (Europe)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Sabine maidens at a festival. After ruling for forty years Romulus vanished and became the god Quirinus. During the late fourth century bc the Romulus myth first rivalled that of Aeneas as the supposed city founder. The she wolf had been the symbol of nationality since the establishment of the Republic in 510 bc . Although imperial patronage gave to Aeneas the official glory (on the nine hundredth anniversary of the traditional foundation of Rome in 148 , coins were issued which gave pride of place to the city's Trojan origins) interest in Romulus and...

Coffeehouses

Coffeehouses   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the kaveh kanes , as fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Arab establishments were known, coffeehouses have provided a place for people to socialize over a cup of coffee and a bite to eat. The coffeehouse combined with café has a longer European pedigree, but the American Revolution was planned in Boston's Green Tavern, a coffeehouse that also served ale. In the 1950s smoky, atmospheric coffeehouses in cities such as San Francisco and New York fueled hipsters and beatniks. In the Vietnam War era, GI coffeehouses outside army bases promoted antiwar...

Harvey, Fred

Harvey, Fred (1835–1901)   Reference library

James D. Porterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...trains in 1888 , Harvey negotiated to staff and provision those eating establishments as well. When the AT&SF acquired rail access to the rim of the Grand Canyon, Harvey created, in 1903 , the recreational and boarding accommodations there. His firm eventually also established corporate and public eating establishments that stretched from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, California. Harvey's contributions to American culinary history are of a pioneering nature. His establishments and his reputation for quality played a critical role in attracting riders...

Grog

Grog   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Other alcoholic beverages, such as arrack, were frequently substituted for the rum in grog, and sometimes other ingredients, such as sugar and lime, were added. Grogshops had sprung up in American ports before the Revolutionary War. They were frequented by sailors and were considered among the most unsavory establishments in American cities. As the price of whiskey declined during the nineteenth century, it was often substituted for rum. Grogshop owners sometimes adulterated the whiskey in the grog with logwood (a dye), berries, tobacco, and strychnine....

Sloppy Joe

Sloppy Joe   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Angell , the founder of Maid-Rite restaurants, in 1926 . During the Great Depression and World War II, ground beef provided an economical way to stretch meat and ensured the popularity of the sandwich. As for the name “sloppy joe,” some say it was inspired by one of two famous bars named Sloppy Joe's in the 1930s—one in Havana, Cuba, and the other in Key West, Florida. The name caught on throughout the United States, and based on the number of establishments that subsequently became known as “Sloppy Joe's” by the late 1930s, it is likely that the...

Liquor Cabinets

Liquor Cabinets   Reference library

Jane C. Otto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cellarette. Prohibition ( 1920–1933 ) generated an active underground movement of illegal alcohol consumption, as well as new methods for keeping illegal alcohol safe. Storage facilities ranged from subterranean storerooms to revolving faux walls (“libraries”) in drinking establishments and private homes. Cellarettes enjoyed a renaissance, in the form of new variations that included trompe l’œil cabinetry designed to transform ordinary household furnishings—drop-leaf tables, bookshelves, and end tables—into objects that could conceal contraband substances....

Mahābhārata

Mahābhārata   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Asian Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...dīkś ) for a sacrifice. The ensuing war between the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas is prepared by Kṛṣṇa who, as the avatar of Viṣṇu ( see Avatars of Viṣṇu ), knows it must take place in order that Śrī (Prosperity) can be restored to Earth. Early in the great battle, Arjuna begins to doubt the value of the inevitable carnage and has to be convinced by the divine revelations of Kṛṣṇa—his charioteer—of the necessity of the sacrifice in the interest of dharma . These revelations form the Bhagavadgītā . The war is the war to end wars, resulting in the victory of the...

Franey, Pierre

Franey, Pierre (1921–1996)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the time the Fair closed in October 1940 , Europe was at war, and France was occupied by German armed forces. Rather than return to occupied France, Franey and Henri Soulé, the Pavillon's maître d’, remained in the United States. In October 1941 Soulé opened a restaurant on New York's fashionable Upper East Side. Hoping to trade on the popularity of the Pavillon at the World's Fair, he named the establishment Le Pavillon. Soulé hired Pierre Franey as a cook, but when the United States entered the war in December 1941 , Franey enlisted in the U.S. Army...

Mahabharata

Mahabharata   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...( diksa ) for a sacrifice. The ensuing war between the Pandavas and Kauravas is prepared by Krishna, who, as the avatar of Vishnu, knows it must take place in order that Shri (Prosperity) can be restored to earth. Early in the great battle, Arjuna begins to doubt the value of the inevitable carnage and must be convinced through the divine revelations of Krishna—his charioteer —of the necessity of the sacrifice in the interest of dharma. These revelations form the Bhagavadgita . The war is “the war to end wars,” resulting in the victory of the Pandavas...

Spam

Spam   Reference library

Carolyn Wyman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...wrapping them together with a belt of seaweed, Spam sushi, or musubi , is as common in convenience stores and take-out stands in Hawaii as hot dogs are in these establishments on the mainland. The world's Spam-eating capital is Guam. Annual per capita consumption in this U.S. territory is eight pounds. Automobile dealers in Guam use trunkfuls of Spam as sales promotions. Selling Spam. After World War II, Hormel hired former servicewomen to sell Spam and other products. That group grew into a traveling sales force of sixty musically talented women who starred...

Doomsday

Doomsday   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...ended ( De Tempore Ratione , cited in Thompson, 1996 : 32). However, there is no evidence of millennial panic in 1000 or 1033. Doomsday is of course inseparable from the concept of the Second Coming and the establishment of a just and godly world. These ideas have strong political implications; they were conspicuous in England during the Civil War and Commonwealth, but after the Restoration lost all prestige ( Thomas , 1971 : 140–6). Doomsday preoccupations periodically recurred at the level where popular religion and folklore meet, causing anxiety about...

Nathan's Famous

Nathan's Famous   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...millions thronged Coney Island in the summer, Nathan's became a local landmark, but Coney Island gradually fell into decline after World War II. Feltman's closed in 1954 and the following year, the company announced that it had sold in 1955 its millionth hot dog. Nathan's began to expand, opening outlets in other cities. The Nathan's chain had a growth spurt during the 1980s, when investors encouraged the establishment of larger restaurants, Nathan's Famous.  Hirofumi Nakajima ( right ) of Kofu, Japan, competes against Ed “The Animal” Krachie of New York...

Cocktails

Cocktails   Reference library

Dale DeGroff

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to an urban society. Immigration. Driven by the potato famine in the British islands and the disastrous economy of the post-Napoleonic Wars on the Continent, waves of immigrants flocked to the cities of the Northeast, and they brought strong communal drinking traditions with them—the pubs of the British islands and the beer halls of Germany. Ghettos in the cities were soon filled with illegal drinking establishments and social clubs called “blind pigs.” The enormous potential for a political power base in these ghettos did not go unnoticed by the...

Lloyd, Albert Lancaster

Lloyd, Albert Lancaster (1908–82)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...is strongly in evidence in all his work, which did not endear him to the broadcasting establishment of the day, but he was well known and respected in left-wing intellectual circles. Lloyd has encountered traditional songs in his travels, particularly in Australia, and even before the Second World War he had begun to research into the history and morphology of the genre. Each of his four major books in the field was extremely influential in setting the agenda for the post-war folk-song revival in which he and others like Ewan MacColl played a crucial...

Folk-Song Society

Folk-Song Society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...rather than performance and teaching were the objectives. The first four Vice-Presidents chosen— Sir John Stainer , Sir Alexander Mackenzie , Sir Hubert Parry , and Dr Villiers Stanford —demonstrated the intended standing of the new Society in the respectable musical establishment of the late Victorian era. The Society's annual Journal was launched in 1899 , and for the rest of the Society's existence it served as the major source of raw material for the folk-song movement. A pattern soon evolved which was adhered to for many years. The proof sheets...

Rodale, Jerome I.

Rodale, Jerome I.   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of World War II, Jerome Rodale began publishing a magazine titled Organic Gardening . The war effort required massive food production in order to feed soldiers and civilians, as well as foreign allies. To help meet the nation's food needs, the federal government encouraged Americans to grow fruits and vegetables in backyard “Victory Gardens.” An estimated 80 percent of the population responded, and in 1943 , these gardens produced 40 percent of the fresh produce consumed in America. Since little synthetic fertilizer was available during the war—the...

Diners

Diners   Reference library

Randy Garbin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to the decreased need for prep work and lack of demand. The diner's revival began in the mid-1970s, with the almost simultaneous establishment of upscale diners, the publication of diner-related book titles, and the growing ubiquity of diner iconography in the mass media. This higher profile attracted people who were increasingly bored with homogeneous fast-food meals and nostalgic for basic meals in locally owned establishments. As people rejected the haute cuisine of the 1980s during the recession of the early 1990s, the American diner serving “comfort...

Central Asian Food

Central Asian Food   Reference library

Russell Zanca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...localized Central Asian culinary traditions become better known in North America. Afghan dishes, themselves an interesting fusion of northern Indian and Iranian ingredients with many local variants, have been attracting Americans to dining establishments since the 1970s. Renewed interest in Afghan cuisine accompanies the “war on terror.” Breads, kebabs, yogurt sauces, and vegetarian dishes, including those made with eggplant, okra, and squashes, tend to be among the favorites. Most Central Asians are Muslims, so pork does not appear on their tables. Lamb and...

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