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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Vietnam War

Vietnam War   Reference library

Ray Pratt

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,207 words

...War . The Vietnam War period can be dated from the establishment of the US Military Assistance Command in 1963 to the fall of Saigon to North Vietnamese forces in 1975 . References to the war and reflections on its meaning in popular music began to reach a wide listenership by 1965 . Because millions of Americans were drafted to serve in the US military during the war period, its impact on individuals of military age, their social peers, friends, and families was almost as widespread as that of World war ii . From Johnny Wright's “Hello, Vietnam”...

Ricordi

Ricordi   Reference library

Jonas Westover

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
207 words

...was founded in Milan, Italy, in 1808 by Giovanni Ricordi. From 1888 to 1912 it was directed by Giovanni's grandson Giulio Ricordi, who was responsible in 1911 for the establishment of a branch in New York. Franco Colombo, whose father Alfredo Colombo was president of Ricordi Milan from 1940 to 1961 , joined the New York office in 1937 . He later returned to Italy and after World War II created a department there dealing in American popular music, then in 1949 became managing director of the New York branch. He established the firm as an American...

Harbert, Wilhelmina K(eniston)

Harbert, Wilhelmina K(eniston) (27 Dec 1888)   Reference library

William B. Davis

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
205 words

...Stockton, California ( 1933 ). She used her formidable talents as a pianist and vocalist to entertain American troops hospitalized in France during World War I. Her experiences with physically and emotionally injured soldiers, and later as a volunteer in New England settlement houses, hospitals, and institutions, solidified her desire to pursue a career in music therapy well before the formal establishment of the profession in 1950 . Though she lacked formal training in music therapy, Harbert began teaching courses in the same at the College (now University)...

Jackson-Guldan

Jackson-Guldan   Reference library

Arian Sheets

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
338 words

...Institute of Allied Arts, South Bend, IN, or with the paper label of Slingerland's Correspondence School of Music, Chicago, the predecessor to the Slingerland Drum Company, inside the body. The establishment of this line of work was related to the end of the dominant supplies of mass-produced violins from Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, and Japan due to World War I. By the time that these foreign suppliers resumed exports to the United States, Jackson-Guldan was sufficiently established to compete with these larger-volume producers. Nevertheless, in the...

Cold War, the

Cold War, the   Reference library

Emily Abrams Ansari

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,530 words

...War, the . The Cold War was a political, ideological, and military conflict between Communist and Western nations that began around 1947 and ended with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 . The USSR and the United States were the principal adversaries, both superpowers after World War II. Each funded many proxy wars during this period, but because of their nuclear capabilities never fought each other directly, thereby creating alternating periods of high tension and relative calm. The Cold War's only consistent feature was thus the ideological conflict...

Casals (i Defilló), Pablo

Casals (i Defilló), Pablo (29 Dec 1876)   Reference library

Mark E. Perry

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
549 words

...World War I he lived and toured regularly in the United States. In 1914 he married the American mezzo-soprano Susan Metcalfe in New York. They subsequently separated in 1928 and divorced in 1957 . After the war Casals returned to Barcelona and founded the Orquesta Pau Casals, marking the beginning of a more prominent conducting role. At the end of the Spanish Civil War he was forced into exile and settled in Prades, France. During World War II he remained in France, giving public performances for humanitarian causes. For a short period after the war he...

Bernstein, Martin

Bernstein, Martin (14 Dec 1904)   Reference library

Paula Morgan and Jonas Westover

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
344 words

...Martin ( b New York, NY , 14 Dec 1904 ; d 19 Dec 1999 ). Writer on music and music educator . Bernstein was an important figure in the establishment of musicology as a discipline in the early twentieth century. He studied with albert Stoessel at New York University (BS 1925 , BMus 1927 ), where he began teaching in 1925 . After working during World War II as an intelligence officer, he was appointed professor in 1947 and chairman of the music department in 1955 . After his retirement in 1972 he was visiting professor at Harvard...

Stamps, V(irgil) O(liver)

Stamps, V(irgil) O(liver) (18 Sept 1892)   Reference library

Jeannette Fresne

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
336 words

...gospel music education, publishing, and composing gospel music quartets, Stamps founded the V.O. Stamps School of Music in Jacksonville, Texas ( 1924 ). Two years later he and Jesse Randall Baxter, Jr., founded the Stamps-baxter music and printing company , followed by the establishment in Dallas of a company headquarters ( 1929 ) and printing plant ( 1934 ). The company became one of the largest publishers of gospel music and most successful organizers of singing-schools in the 20th century. In addition to convention books and special collections for radio,...

Rose, David

Rose, David (15 June 1910)   Reference library

David Ades

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
421 words

...first husband, and his radio show “California Melodies” grew into something of an American institution, providing the showcase for his new compositions. In 1943 Rose startled the Light Music establishment with his Holiday for Strings , in turn inspiring a whole generation of composers including Leroy Anderson, Trevor Duncan, and Robert Farnon. Following war service in the US Army Air Force, Rose gained his first Oscar nomination for his score for the 1944 film The Princess and the Pirate , and subsequent high-profile movies included Jupiter's...

Flamenco

Flamenco   Reference library

Anthony C. Dumas

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
419 words

...seven-decade career included 40 domestic and six international tours, television and film credits, four honorary doctorates, and a Spanish knighthood. In the 1950s flamenco communities emerged in New York's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's North Beach district. Beat-era establishments like The Old Spaghetti Factory (San Francisco) showcased local flamenco performers together with those from Spain. In contrast to Greco's theatrical style, American guitarist David Jones [David Serva], who apprenticed with Spain's Diego del Gastor, popularized a...

Gilfert, Charles H.

Gilfert, Charles H. (c1786)   Reference library

James R. Hines, Barbara Turchin, and Nicholas Michael Butler

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
607 words

...by March 1816 he was again in Charleston, where he helped his father-in-law, Joseph Holman, reopen the Charleston Theater. After Holman's death in 1817 , Gilfert assumed the management of the theater and held it until 1825 . During that time he focused his energies on the establishment of a touring theatrical circuit that included Norfolk and Richmond, Virginia; Charleston; and Savannah and Augusta, Georgia. Financial difficulties caused him to move to Albany, New York, where he opened the Sans Souci Theater and managed the Bowery Theater. In 1827 he...

Zither, fretted.

Zither, fretted.   Reference library

David J. Kyger

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
800 words

...Bros. & Reinhard, New York; Lyon & Healy, Chicago; and Wm. Teubner, Baltimore. In 1911 , A.W. Schepp wrote to several colleagues and proposed the establishment of a national association of zither players. His idea took hold and in September of 1912 , the first congress of the American Zither Verband (AZV) was held in Washington, Missouri. But in 1915 , the AZV ceased its activities due to the outbreak of World War I and rising anti-German sentiment. Production at the Schwarzer factory, which had peaked in 1893 , declined dramatically. The American Zither...

Klezmer

Klezmer   Reference library

Henry Sapoznik

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
598 words

...and the rise of Israel and its attendant Hebrew-language culture after World War II also spelled the decline of this Yiddish-based music. In the 1970s a rediscovery of the classic klezmer 78s of the 1920s fed a grassroots movement to reclaim the music among young American Jews. Such performers as Andy Statman and Israeli clarinetist Giora Feidman, and bands such as the Klezmorim, Kapelye and the Klezmer Conservatory Band, led what was soon to be a worldwide revival. The establishment of KlezKamp: the Yiddish Folk Arts Program in 1985 established a standard...

Show choir

Show choir   Reference library

Jill L. Burleson

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
776 words

...Competing groups performed three songs, two staged and one stand-and-sing piece, referred to as the “ballad,” standardizing the show choir format. Continued growth in the Midwest saw a surge in high school swing choirs and the emergence of the “invitational” concept, with the establishment of the Bishop Luers High School Swing Choir Invitational in 1974 (Bishop Luers High School, Fort Wayne, Indiana). This was a venue for high school choirs to compete with and observe other high school choirs, further solidifying the show format and heightening levels of...

Archives and Manuscripts

Archives and Manuscripts   Reference library

Sarah Adams

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,443 words

...altogether, such as the Toscanini Archives at the New York Public Library, which contains microfilms of composer autograph scores and sketches. 3. History of archives in the United States. The development of music-related archives in the United States is intertwined with the establishment of archives in general, as well as with the development of music as a field of study. In colonial times it was generally recognized that keeping documents and records was a community responsibility, both at the local and colony level. Historical societies, emerging at the end...

Rocky Mountains

Rocky Mountains   Reference library

Peter Schimpf

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,394 words

...of the Rocky Mountains were established in the 1890s. An early incarnation of the prestigious Utah Symphony was formed in 1892 , while Elitch Gardens in Denver hosted outdoor symphony concerts throughout the 1890s, ultimately leading to the establishment of a Denver Symphony Orchestra from 1900 until World War I. In 1934 a new Denver SO was created, lasting until 1989 before merging with the Colorado SO in 1990 . The Idaho Civic Orchestra was also founded in the early 1900s, while the Cheyenne Little SO was created in 1935 , eventually becoming...

Ono, Yoko

Ono, Yoko (18 Feb 1933)   Reference library

David W. Bernstein and Wendy F. Hsu

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
784 words

...New York City 1972–1982 (New York, 1989) B. Haskell and J. Hanhardte : Yoko Ono: Arias and Objects (Salt Lake City, 1991) G.G. Gaar : She's a Rebel: the History of Women in Rock & Roll (Seattle, 1992) O.F. Smith : “Proto-Fluxus in the United States, 1959–1961: the Establishment of a Like-Minded Community of Artists,” Fluxus: a Conceptual Country , ed. E. Milman (Providence, RI, 1992), 45–57 E. Gomez : “Music of the Mind from the Voice of the Raw Soul,” Yes Yoko Ono , ed. D. Ross , M. Sayle , and J.S. Wenner (New York, 2000), 231–47 B. Jungr ,...

Hook & Hastings

Hook & Hastings   Reference library

Barbara Owen

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
909 words

...their first four-manual organ in 1853 for its successor, and in the following year they built a large new steam-powered factory. By the 1850s the firm had become the leading organ-building establishment in Boston and was producing an average of between 15 and 20 organs a year in this period, largely for locations in the northeastern United States. Following the Civil War, Hook's production gradually increased to between 30 and 40 organs annually, with a clientele now reaching into the Midwest and beyond, and included a large three-manual organ for St....

Horn

Horn   Reference library

Lowell Greer

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
822 words

...retained at least one soloist, and foreign soloists have often toured the United States. Joseph Eger is an esteemed American player who had an important influence on American music, as did john Barrows and Helen Kotas Hirsch, and all had pupils who continued their work. The establishment of enduring international competitions within the United States has brought many recent soloists more popular recognition. Currently, Americans seem to have produced as many solo CDs as Europeans have, thus ending a foreign domination of the art. The horn's solo literature is...

Lexington

Lexington   Reference library

Nikos Pappas

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
947 words

...American performance of any of Beethoven's symphonies. Lexington also became a center for piano manufacturing during the first half of the 19th century beginning in 1805 , as well as a regional center for performance and composition. Lexington's initiatives reflect the establishment of a society devoted to leisure, learning and higher culture. Alongside these achievements, Lexington and the surrounding area played a seminal role in the Second Great Awakening and its distinctive folk hymnody found in shape-note tunebooks. Beginning in the 1790s with...

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