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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Preparedness Controversy

Preparedness Controversy   Reference library

Keith L. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Controversy The outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914 provoked significant disagreement over its implications for the United States. Conservatives, who had espoused patriotic service and national power since at least the 1890s, portrayed the war as clear proof that the United States needed to enlarge its military establishment. Reformers and radicals, suspicious of conservative business interests, viewed the conflict within the context of America's traditional antimilitarism and antipathy to large standing armies. A small group of northeastern...

Stimson, Henry

Stimson, Henry (1867–1950)   Reference library

Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Policy ; Religion, Influence of, on U.S. Diplomacy ; Patton, George S., Jr. ; Philippine War (1899–1902) ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder ; Preparedness Controversy ; Roosevelt, Franklin Delano ; Root, Elihu ; State, U.S. Secretaries of ; Taft, William Howard ; War Crimes Trials, Nuremberg and Tokyo ; World War I (1914–1918) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Fabry, Mikulas . Recognizing States: International Society and the Establishment of New States since 1776 . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Krepon, Michael . Better...

Council on Foreign Relations

Council on Foreign Relations   Reference library

Peter Grose

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...community, the banker David Rockefeller ( 1915 – ) guided the council's growth as chair and benefactor. The Vietnam War fractured the American consensus on foreign policy, and the council's preeminence suffered accordingly; new centers of expertise and deliberation sprang up outside the traditional East Coast establishment. The council became a flashpoint for ideological criticism from the right and left alike. The end of the Cold War in 1989 opened an array of new issues for research and analysis. Gradually adapting to these altered circumstances, the...

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Strategic Services   Reference library

Paul M. McGarr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...its access to valuable military resources and support. On 13 June 1942 , President Roosevelt formally approved the COI's transformation into the Office of Strategic Services ( OSS ). The establishment of the OSS marked a watershed in the history of American intelligence. The OSS's mission was to collect and analyze strategic information and to undertake special operations requested by the JCS. Never before had a single agency of the U.S. government been tasked with conducting a full range of intelligence-related activities, including espionage, covert...

Military Service Academies

Military Service Academies   Reference library

Todd Forney and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...who did not owe allegiance to society, but to the institutions that employed them. The Revolutionary War, however, raised doubts about the skills of the citizen-soldier, especially in a severe national emergency. Ex-Continental Army officers and Federalist Party members like George Washington and Alexander Hamilton advocated a regular officer corps. Ironically, it was the Federalists’ archrival, Thomas Jefferson , who authorized the establishment of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1802 . West Point's founders, understanding the...

Atlantic Charter

Atlantic Charter   Reference library

Theodore A. Wilson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...conditions for all, renunciation of territorial expansion, and protection against forced territorial changes. The remaining three embodied liberal internationalist thinking about the causes of war and the foundations of world peace. These were freedom of the seas, open access to markets and raw materials, and disarmament of aggressor nations, pending the establishment of a permanent structure to assure world peace. The Atlantic Charter reflected American ideals embodied in President Woodrow Wilson 's Fourteen Points of 1918 and articulated in FDR's January...

Army, U.S.

Army, U.S.   Reference library

Graham A. Cosmas, Don Higginbotham, William B. Skelton, Joseph G. Dawson, James L. Abrahamson, Graham A. Cosmas, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a role that led to the tragic Trail of Tears ( 1838–1839 ) and the long guerrilla conflict in Florida known as the Seminole Wars ( 1818 , 1835–1842 , 1855–1858 ). The demands of national expansionism brought occasional increases in army strength. The army reintroduced mounted regiments in 1833 and 1836 , the first since the War of 1812 and, with the outbreak of the Mexican War in 1846 , the army's basic establishment swelled to 17,812. Congress supplemented this force, achieved mainly by filling the understrength units with recruits, with 10...

Bombing, Strategy and Ethics of

Bombing, Strategy and Ethics of   Reference library

James Turner Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...unintentional effect of legitimate acts of war (the “rule of double effect”). The total damage caused, moreover, must not be disproportionate to the justifiable ends achieved. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, writers such as John Locke and Emmerich de Vattel extended the traditional idea of noncombatant immunity to prohibit acts of war aimed at civilian property and values of common benefit to humanity. The codification of positive international law on war, marked by the Lieber Code and the establishment of the International Red Cross in the mid-...

Mexican War

Mexican War (1846–1848)   Reference library

Robert E. May

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...eleven soldiers, wounding others, and taking sixty-three prisoners. Polk asked Congress for war on 11 May, asserting that Mexico had “shed American blood upon American soil.” That same day, the House of Representatives passed a war bill by a vote of 173 to 14. The Senate followed suit on 12 May, by a 40-to-2 margin. Although the United States entered the war with an army of fewer than seven thousand officers and men (less than one-third the size of Mexico's establishment), American troops invaded Mexico and repeatedly defeated numerically superior Mexican forces...

Rotc

Rotc   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...membership, or simply reading military manuals. The Civil War expansion of the army showed the need for a more widespread training of such citizen-officers. The idea of including military training in public colleges was incorporated into the Morrill Act of 1862 , which granted public lands for the establishment of colleges and provided that military tactics should be offered as part of the curriculum in these land-grant institutions. The federal government provided some funding and the War Department assigned some active-duty or retired officers as...

Early Republic, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Early Republic, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Leonard J. Sadosky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...only by their code letters—X, Y, and Z—thus giving the diplomatic incident its name, the XYZ affair. The Adams administration put the nation on a war footing in 1798 . Congress formally re-created the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. Although the Continental Congress had created a Continental navy during the Revolutionary War, a formal naval establishment was not effected until 1798 . With a potential naval war with France looming, Congress and the Adams administration created the new Department of the Navy with a cabinet-level secretary. Benjamin Stoddert ,...

National Security Act of 1947

National Security Act of 1947   Reference library

Mark M. Lowenthal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...CIA with “other functions and duties related to intelligence,” which became the legal basis for covert operations. The National Security Act was a central document in U.S. Cold War policy and in the acceptance by the nation of its position as world leader. Although the act did not actually unify the armed services, it did increase the coordination of the national security establishment. This went from a very ramshackle ad hoc structure to a much more coherent and more centralized one—via the president through the NSC, the increasing power of the secretary of...

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa (1945–1989)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...political competition among Africans themselves provided further opportunities for foreign intervention. China also played a role in the Cold War in Africa, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Although China and the Soviet Union shared roughly the same Communist objectives, an ideological rivalry emerged between the two powers in the early 1960s. China’s diplomatic contact with Africa, which began with the establishment of its first African diplomatic mission in Cairo, Egypt , in 1956 , was initially based on supporting African revolutionary movements. From...

Washington, George

Washington, George (1732–1799)   Reference library

Don Higginbotham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...George ( 1732–1799 ), Revolutionary War commander in chief and first president of the United States. Born into a family on the margins of the Virginia aristocracy, Washington advanced rapidly to local prominence owing to his brother Lawrence, whose brief career in the British military establishment and marriage into the powerful Fairfax family introduced both brothers into high society. Ambitious and intelligent, although lacking formal education, Washington obtained the office of regional militia adjutant and then, in 1753 , served as Virginia...

Coast Guard, U.S.

Coast Guard, U.S.   Reference library

John A. Tilley and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...within the DHS. The service's motto is Semper paratus —“Always ready.” [ See also Civil War (1861–1865) ; D-Day Landing ; Mexican War (1846–1848) ; Military Service Academies ; Navy, U.S. ; Roosevelt, Franklin Delano ; September 11th Terrorist Attacks ; Spanish–American War (1898) ; United Nations, U.S. Relationship with the ; Vietnam War (1960–1975) ; War of 1812 ; Washington, George ; Wilson, Woodrow ; World War I (1914–1918) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Canney, Donald L. U.S. Coast Guard and Revenue Cutters,...

Veterans

Veterans   Reference library

Stuart McConnell, Dani Holtz, Timothy J. Lynch, G. Kurt Piehler, and Dani Holtz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of medical care to disabled veterans, including the establishment of a department of medicine within the agency and the formal affiliation of VA hospitals with major medical schools. In 1953 , President Dwight D. Eisenhower implemented the recommendation of a private consultant to streamline the VA and created three major departments within the agency: Medicine and Surgery, Insurance, and Benefits. This newly configured VA administered less-generous packages of GI Bill benefits for veterans of wars in Korea and later Vietnam. In 1973 the VA also...

N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena, Chad   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Chad Capital, largest city, and economic center of Chad. N’Djamena lies at the confluence of the Logone and Chari rivers close to Chad ’s border with Cameroon and 80 km (50 mi) southeast of Lake Chad. Known as Fort Lamy from its establishment until September 1973 when President François Tombalbaye “Africanized” all French place names, N’Djamena acquired its present name from a small Kotoko fishing village, Am-Djamena, founded on the site by the nineteenth century. In 1900 the French defeated and killed the Sudanese slaver Rabih...

Bundy, McGeorge

Bundy, McGeorge (1919–1996)   Reference library

Andrew Preston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Vietnam? Halberstam found much of his answer in the person of McGeorge Bundy , who served as national security adviser to presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961 to 1966 . Born into a well-connected family of the Boston establishment, Bundy had a glittering academic career at Yale and Harvard, with service in World War II sandwiched in between. In 1953 , at the remarkably young age of thirty-four, he was appointed dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard College, the university's second-highest-ranking office. Bundy was nominally a...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

George C. Herring and Carol Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...by nonstate entities have inspired scholars to reconsider old analytical frameworks, often drawing upon history—for good or for ill—for examples to illustrate still-emerging concepts such as “new wars” or “fourth-generation warfare.” Second, and related closely to the expansion and reorganization of the national defense establishment during the Cold War, a new interest in civil–military relations emerged. The political scientist Samuel P. Huntington 's The Soldier and the State ( 1957 ) examined what he described as objective and subjective civilian...

Military–Industrial Complex

Military–Industrial Complex   Reference library

James Kurth, Dani Holtz, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...States to a major arms buildup to contain Communism. Truman's Cold War policy legitimated rearmament, and the Korean War necessitated a permanent military–industrial establishment. Truman's successor, President Dwight D. Eisenhower , expanded America's nuclear and tactical air capabilities as part of his so-called New Look approach—set out in National Security Council Document 162/2—which emphasized nuclear deterrence. Reductions in military spending had occurred after previous wars, but the Eisenhower administration did not undertake drastic reductions...

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