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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Wells, Herbert George

Wells, Herbert George (1866–1946)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
142 words

...and Midhurst; lives in Uppark ; apprenticed at drapery establishment in Portsmouth 1881–3 ; student assistant teacher in Midhurst 1883–4 ; stays in Stoke‐on‐Trent 1888 ; lives in Folkestone 1900 , Little Easton ; visits J. K. Jerome in Ewelme , E. Nesbit at Well Hall, London ( Eltham ); lives in London ( Marylebone : Marylebone Rd) 1930–7 ; last years and d. in London ( Regent's Park : Hanover Ter.) 1937–46 . The Chronic Argonauts (later The Time Machine ) 1895 , The War of the Worlds 1898 , The Sleeper Awakes 1899 , Mankind in...

Liverpool

Liverpool   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
2,381 words

...Hawthorne, who was US Consul ( 1853–7 ). In Our Old Home ( 1863 ), Hawthorne describes the Consulate, which he detested, as located in Washington Buildings, (a shabby and smoke‐stained edifice of four stories high, thus illustriously named in honour of our national establishment) at the lower corner of Brunswick St., contiguous to the Goree Arcade, and in the neighbourhood of some of the oldest docks. His landlady Mrs Blodget , with whom he lodged in 1853 and in the winter of 1855–6 , lived at 153 (formerly 133) Duke St. Mrs Harriet Beecher...

Oxford

Oxford   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
16,421 words

...3 ( 1986 ) Morse and his sidekick Lewis meet here, and Lewis reads the Inklings' plaque, imagining that some day a plaque might commemorate other patrons of this establishment: ‘Chief Inspector Morse, with his friend and colleague Sergeant Lewis , sat in this back room one Thursday, in order to solve …’. Williams also wrote religious works, biographies, and metaphysical thrillers, his name for War in Heaven ( 1930 ), The Place of the Lion ( 1931 ), and others. He is buried in St Cross churchyard, as is H. W. Garrod of Merton ( d. 1960 ). St Cross...

London

London   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
76,697 words

...of confusion, ‘urgency and worry’, and where the ‘pungent rankness’ of the old 78 records constitute the ‘true smell of the BBC's war’, the Corporation dedicated itself to ‘the strangest project of the war, or of any war, that is, telling the truth … droning quietly on, at intervals from dawn to midnight, telling, as far as possible, exactly what happened’. Other writers who worked at Broadcasting House during the war included George Orwell , Louis MacNeice , and William Empson . In 1781 the fashionable Mrs Elizabeth Montagu moved to her new...

Dublin

Dublin   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
9,179 words

...of Swift relics. Derek Mahon , his ‘bits and pieces making a home from home’, describes a stay in the hospital in ‘Dawn at St Patrick's’. Trinity College, College Green (founded 1592 by Elizabeth I ). ‘The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity’ was a Protestant establishment from which Catholics were excluded from taking degrees until 1793 . On the S side of Library Sq. is the library ( 1712–32 ), which houses Ireland's greatest collection of books, manuscripts, and historical papers. The many treasures on view in the splendid Long Room on the...

The Korean War and Its Literary Legacies

The Korean War and Its Literary Legacies   Reference library

Daniel Y. Kim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...wars not by highlighting atrocities it directly committed, but by suggesting how the American presence worked to intensify the brutality of these conflicts. The violence that erupts in these camps between Communists and Nationalists seems a miniaturization and extension of the civil war that led to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China—the violence of such conflicts, the novel intimates, was greatly exacerbated by the US role. By having his narrator address his story to his grandchildren in the United States, Jin insists that these Asian wars...

The Vietnam War in Film

The Vietnam War in Film   Reference library

Sylvia Shin Huey Chong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...after 1978 . Scholarship on the Vietnam War film also lagged behind until the early 1990s, when a series of anthologies and monographs were published. This period, of the late 1970s to the early 1990s, coincided with the rise of the academic fields that were most pertinent to the study of the Vietnam War in film: cinema studies and Asian American studies. As these fields began to professionalize through the establishment of academic departments and programs, peer-reviewed journals and book series, and dedicated conferences and symposia, these institutional...

The Vietnam War and Asian American Literature

The Vietnam War and Asian American Literature   Reference library

Josephine Nock-Hee Park

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Trans-Vietnamese Feminism (2012) indicated the establishment of a literary field of study. 28 Within the broader field of Asian American studies, critical reassessments of the wake of the American war in Vietnam formed the leading edge of critical refugee studies, a major turn in war scholarship that developed the centrality of the refugee in modern and contemporary warfare. The work of sociologist Yen Le Espiritu forms the foundation of this wave of analysis, and her monograph Body Counts: The Vietnam War and Militarized Refuge(es) (2014) presents the...

Intersections of Arab American and Asian American Literature

Intersections of Arab American and Asian American Literature   Reference library

Carol W. N. Fadda

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...States include the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 , the Korean War from 1950 to 1953 , the Vietnam War beginning in the early 1960s till 1975 , the Arab–Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973 , the 1970s Arab oil embargo, the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the hostage crisis, the Lebanese war from 1975 to 1990 and its aftermath, the First Gulf War in the early 1990s, the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001 and 2003 , respectively, and the subsequent drawn-out US-led wars in both countries, and the ongoing “war on terror.” The more...

Vietnamese American Literature

Vietnamese American Literature   Reference library

Michele Janette

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...In the late 1960s, the war became increasingly unpopular in the United States as victory failed to arrive and the body count rose. In 1969 , the United States began withdrawing its soldiers as part of the “Vietnamization” of the war, and the last American troops left in 1973 . Negotiations to end the war had also begun in 1969 , culminating in the 1973 Paris Peace Agreement, which granted each government the territory it held at the time (a considerable advantage to the North). After the departure of the Americans, civil war continued for two more...

Global South Korea in 21st-Century Asian American Literature

Global South Korea in 21st-Century Asian American Literature   Reference library

Na-Rae Kim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...with the Korea Herald , March 18, 2016. 19. Kim, “Korean War Fiction,” 298. 20. Chu, Where I Have Never Been , 6. 21. Quotation from Chu, Where I Have Never Been , 5. For more on the effect of the Korean War, or modern Korean history and the Korean diasporas, see Grace Cho, Haunting the Korean Diaspora: Shame, Secrecy, and the Forgotten War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008) . 22. Yuh, “Moved by War.” 23. Although not written by a Korean American, Ha Jin’s War Trash (New York: Vintage Books, 2004) is also notable. 24. Linda...

History and Memory: Narrating the Japanese American Incarceration

History and Memory: Narrating the Japanese American Incarceration   Reference library

Christine C. So

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,783 words
Illustration(s):
4

...done to Japanese Americans during World War II.” 15 Redress reinforces the notion of Japanese American incarceration as a moment outside of time and uses the repudiation of the incarceration as a means of reinforcing the morality of the nation and bringing Japanese Americans back into a cohesive narrative of American history. The apology and accompanying monies were the culmination of a decade’s worth of movement within Congress to address the injustice of the incarceration. Beginning with Congress’s establishment of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and...

Filipino American Visual Culture

Filipino American Visual Culture   Reference library

Sarita Echavez See

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...a good thing, especially in the era of colonial war where visibility means targetability. 22 Balce’s thesis about the politics of in/visibility has opened up ways to make connections between contemporary Filipino American visual and expressive culture and its sociohistorical origins, particularly in relation to the American conquest and colonization of the Philippines. Only in the late 20th century was the violent, devastating Philippine–American War ( 1899–1913 ) recognized as a genocidal race war, and scholarly claims about its relevance for...

Early Japanese American Literature, 1815–1900

Early Japanese American Literature, 1815–1900   Reference library

Andrew Way Leong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...precursor to the Nichibei Shimbun , “the leading Japanese American vernacular newspaper in the pre–World War II period.” 71 Yonako’s name did not appear on the masthead of the Nichibei Shimbun until 1936 , when she took over as publisher of the newspaper after the death of her husband. However, Yonako was an important behind-the-scenes presence in the Nichibei Shimbun venture well before 1936 . She also was a key figure in the 1912 establishment of the Joshi Seinen Kai (Young women’s association), a boarding house and educational facility for Japanese...

Asian American and Pacific Islander Sport

Asian American and Pacific Islander Sport   Reference library

Robert T. Hayashi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...competition by the early 1900s. In 1912 , the Manila carnival included national athletic competitions in a variety of Western sports, including basketball for both boys and girls. The YMCA first arrived in the Philippines in 1909 and further promoted basketball through the establishment of the Amateur Athletic Federation to promote and guide amateur athletic competition. In addition, the YMCA provided personnel to act as playground directors, guiding the play of Philippine children in these facilities designed for physical and moral training. During this...

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II   Reference library

Krystyn R. Moon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
7,082 words
Illustration(s):
8

...aware of these attitudes—used their theatrical and musical skills to counter popular perceptions and, when possible, break down stereotypes. By the late 19th century , South Asians traveled to the United States to give lectures on religion, politics, and history. The establishment of English schools, which Protestant missionaries had opened for conversion purposes, became the training ground for South Asian lecturers who spoke on the need to reform both American and Indian society. The first speakers arrived in the 1880s. In 1884 , Gopalrao Joshee...

The Transpacific Subject in Asian American Culture

The Transpacific Subject in Asian American Culture   Reference library

Erin Suzuki and Aimee Bahng

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries .” 37 The harrowing expropriation of Native peoples from their lands in the so-called new world during the 15th and 16th centuries made way for this production of liberal personhood—understood as the establishment of rights-bearing subjects who can possess property insofar as they can demonstrate the possession of an individual will. Given liberal humanism’s fundamental attachment to possession and its historical instrumentalization toward the dis possession of Indigenous peoples, it...

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