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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Perry, Fred

Perry, Fred   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
421 words

...professional, touring successfully, gaining sponsorship from Slazenger, buying a share of the Beverly Hills Tennis Club, founding Fred Perry Sportswear in 1950 , and also serving in the US airforce in World War II and adopting US citizenship. He commentated for the BBC—proving itself a less rigid British institution than the tennis establishment—at Wimbledon from 1948 . In 1984 , though, commemorating the half-century that had passed since Perry's first Wimbledon victory, the All England Club commissioned a statue of him by David Wynne ( 1926–2014 ) ...

Rous, Sir Stanley

Rous, Sir Stanley   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
916 words

...classes, Rous's father had planned for him to go to Emmanuel College, Cambridge. But, after service in Africa during World War I, Rous studied at St. Luke's College, Exeter, and then taught at Watford Grammar School. He was not born into the establishment but through football he became an establishment figure. For him, teaching and football were acts of public service. He played football at college, then in the Army during the War. Though he may have been good enough to play the game professionally, his commitment to amateur ideals denied him the chance to...

civil rights

civil rights   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
516 words

...storm troopers’. By 1982 , though, the reactionary establishment had been superseded by a more enlightened administration in US sport, and Carlos worked for the Los Angeles Olympic organizers promoting the 1984 Games and liaising with black constituencies and communities. The Black Power salute was a pivotal moment in the cultural politics of sport, as well as the civil rights movement. Carlos pointed out the inherent politicization of the Olympics with its uniforms, anthems, and Cold War rivalries. In this context the 1968 gesture showed that...

Abrahams, Harold Maurice

Abrahams, Harold Maurice   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
445 words

...extremely hard, but I realize to the full that luck played an enormous part.’ Abrahams pleaded for more consideration of and praise for those at the Olympics who did not win. Ironically, given his professionalized approach in the 1920s, he became a bastion of the amateur establishment, though doing much to modernize the format, profile, and administration of...

cricket

cricket   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
902 words

...new forms of competition such as Twenty20 and the Indian Premier League (with its star players on each roster) remains precarious. In the first decade of the 21st century, the battle between Indian television money and the broadcasters in the heartlands of the cricketing establishment looked to be swaying towards the former. Peter Wilby (‘The Empire Strikes Back’, New Statesman , 6 July 2009 ) commented that ‘the rise of India has changed everything’, the subcontinent generating 70 per cent of world cricket's revenues: this power, he added, ‘represents...

Vietnam

Vietnam   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Male Homosexuality During the Vietnam War, much of Saigon's organized homosexual activity revolved around the city's “gay” bars. According to Marnais ( 1967 ), there were a total of 18 such establishments in existence during the late 1960s. Many of the customers could be found among middle-aged Saigon businessmen and teenage students. Only a small minority displayed the slightest effeminate trait. There were also homosexual steambaths, nightclubs, and coffee shops, and young boys, impoverished and orphaned by the war, sold themselves openly on street...

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,958 words
Illustration(s):
1

...include patriarchal power structures that do not necessarily lead to the establishment of prostitution as a major industry, and few other Buddhist societies have developed this industry to the extent that Thailand has. Further, despite allegations to the contrary, Therevada Buddhism as practiced and institutionalized in Thailand explicitly prohibits the practice of prostitution. [We argue that international sex tourism in Thailand is a complex industry that brings together Cold War geopolitical strategies, international banks, alienated, if comparatively...

Football, American

Football, American   Reference library

Ronald A. SMITH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
7,509 words

...some former professional players suffered from depression, suicide, chronic traumatic encephalopathy ( CTE ), and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease at a higher rate than the general population. Although a direct link has yet to be established, the medical establishment and the players believe that these problems are the result of concussions suffered while playing football. The problem is not just a single concussion but multiple concussions, and concussions suffered before a player has fully recovered from a previous one. The NFL has been...

South Korea

South Korea   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a great change occurred in the form of prostitution. Rather than being confined in certain districts, industrial prostitution began spreading rapidly as a form of secondary service available in new entertainment establishments that provided a primary service. Unlike traditional prostitution, industrial prostitution involves establishments centered mainly on the tertiary service industry, in which sex can be provided legally on the side. The tertiary service industry includes the restaurant and hotel/motel business, entertainment and cultural services,...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
42,021 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a Jewish state and culture that has been at continuous war with its neighboring Muslim countries since its founding. Despite that, some sense of group autonomy that transcends individual rights is recognized by the state, as matters like marriages, divorce, and family law are in the jurisdiction of the Muslim religious courts. While the national and political aspirations of Muslim Arabs in Israel may be at odds with the mainstream of Israeli society, it is interesting that both the Muslim establishment and the population approve of the Israeli system that...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the people and the rule of law, and setting the stage for the development of a parliamentary system of government. Defeat in the Hundred Years War with France ( 1338–1453 ) was followed by a long civil war, the War of the Roses ( 1455–1485 ). While European countries were racked by wars, English culture and a strong economy flourished under the powerful Tudor monarchy and a long period of domestic peace. Establishment of the Church of England in 1534 under the monarch separated England's religious institutions from the authority of Rome. Under Queen...

France

France   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
19,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

...225-10 provides a sentence of 10 years in jail and a 5,000,000-franc fine for a person who, directly or with the help of someone else: 1. Owns, manages, exploits, or finances an establishment for prostitution. 2. Owns, manages, exploits, or finances a public establishment, while accepting or tolerating one or many people to prostitute or search for clients within the establishment. 3. Sells or rents rooms not used by the general population, knowing they will serve for prostitution Article 225-11 provides similar punishment for a person who attempts to...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of 5.6%; Living below the poverty line : NA [ WFB ]. ( End of update by Robert T. Francoeur )] After consecutive economic crises that Turkey faced during the last few years, per capita income dropped to about $3,000 in early 2002 . Following the elections and the establishment of the new government in late 2002 , per capita GDP has shown an inclination to increase. Turkey, like many countries, has experienced a huge population shift in the past 50 years. The percentage of the population living in cities had doubled in 35 years, from 25% in 1950 ...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...) faced a disastrous economic collapse brought on by war reparations to France and its allies. The National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party came to power with Adolph Hitler in 1933 , and started World War II. In the aftermath of the war, Germany was split into an eastern portion under Communist control, and a western democratic republic. The unification of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany—the “Old Lands”) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany—the “New Lands”) in 1990 caused serious economic problems for the whole population....

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...men throng the streets, so a woman would be conspicuous and likely to be harassed. Many stores have sex-segregated service lines, often with a curtain separating the two. Public baths have days for women and days for men, identified by the color of the flag hoisted above the establishment. Schools, too, are segregated to the point that girls' schools employ only female personnel at any level. Places of worship are divided into men's and women's quarters with separate entrances. Informal prayer meetings are only for one sex or the other. Many celebrations and...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
21,522 words
Illustration(s):
1

...15 to 17 years, about 10% have inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system. Twenty-six women died in 1998 as a result of an abortion, for a rate of 0.05 deaths per 1,000 abortions. Seven deaths occurred as a result of an abortion that was not performed in a medical establishment. The percentage of miscarriages out of the total number of pregnancies also increased as a result of abortions. In 1998 , the percentage increased by 1.8 times in comparison to 1990 . About 60% of stillbirths are premature births, and from 50% to 70% are first births. There...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,557 words
Illustration(s):
1

...declared policy for a planned population. The influence of the State on reproductive behavior occurs indirectly, through establishment of financial and institutional incentives. The population policies of the National Socialist dictatorship, the goal of which was to eliminate life that was unworthy of reproduction and to increase the “German race,” led to an economic boom and a temporary increase in births, beginning in 1938 . After the war, a family support policy was developed that provided both tax relief and other social support. These have been in effect...

Argentina

Argentina   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
28,310 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the American continent, Gabon and Botswana from Africa, and Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, and Greece from Europe. 7 The economic and cultural mismanagement of the country could not, however, destroy one of the main achievements of the organizational period of the country: the establishment of a gratuitous, compulsory, tax-sustained, and public education. Although the quality of education suffered from all those years of regressive, and sometimes fascist attacks, quantitatively it still is reaching the whole of the country, allowing everybody at least to read and...

Croatia

Croatia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,611 words
Illustration(s):
1

...becoming in effect one of the defining traits of the Croatian identity. The rest of Croatia chose Ferdinand of Austria as its king, entering the Habsburg domain. With the 1867 establishment of the Austro-Hungarian kingdom, Croatia and Slavonia came under Hungarian jurisdiction and remained part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until it was defeated in 1918 at the end of World War I. In October 1918 , Croatia declared its independence, and on December 1, joined Montenegro, Vojvodina, Serbia, and Slovenia to become a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and...

China

China   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
31,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the most populous nations, decisions made by its people and by its government about sexuality directly affect its population growth and therefore have global importance. Since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949 , China has undergone immense, and sometimes profoundly convulsive changes. A half-century ago, China was devastated by years of civil and external war, its people widely illiterate, and its poverty profound. No matter what one feels about the Mao dynasty—if that word is metaphorically permissible—the achievements of the Chinese...

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