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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

LADD, William

LADD, William (1778–1841)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...orientation to the problem of organizing against violence. By virtue of his 1831 pamphlet calling for the establishment of a Congress of Nations and a Court of Nations, Ladd became a leader of the movement to provide international bodies for the settlement of disputes between countries. Support for such plans was high in New England, where the establishment still grumbled about the disruptions caused by the War of 1812 , and the farcical Aroostook War of the late 1830s made clear the mischief that could thrive in the absence of international protocols....

FINLEY, William

FINLEY, William (1803–1876)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...soon resulted in the establishment of a natural history society and a museum in Charleston. During the late 1840s and the 1850s, the College of Charleston was the finest institution of higher learning in America located south of Philadelphia. The destiny of the college would be determined by political forces that seemed beyond anyone’s control. Finley resigned in 1857 and restored his focus on his legal and political career. Nathaniel R. Middleton was elected to succeed him; Middleton guided the college through the Civil War and Reconstruction periods,...

MARSH, George Perkins

MARSH, George Perkins (1801–1882)   Reference library

Sean Brown

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...Marsh developed a distinguished political career in the Whig party. He served as a member of the Supreme Council for Vermont’s upper chamber beginning in 1835 and, beginning in 1842 , he served three terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, playing a key role in the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution. Finally, Marsh worked for the state department. He was Minister to the Turkish Empire from 1849 till 1854 and in 1861 he was appointed by Lincoln as Minister to Italy, a position he held until his death. Marsh died on 23 July 1882 in...

REESE, Thomas

REESE, Thomas (1742–1796)   Reference library

Andrew Black

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...revelation. He defended the importance of reason against overly enthusiastic piety but believed a purely rational morality could neither overcome human fallibility and self-deception nor shape the habits of a society’s less reflective members. He did not advocate the establishment of a single state church, but rather endorsed the government’s non-sectarian promotion of Christian learning, particularly through the support of trained clergy and church schools. His essay was widely circulated and earned Reese a great deal of praise. In response to his...

FISHER, William Logan

FISHER, William Logan (1781–1862)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...them self-published, concern a wide range of topics, with a particular focus on the history and theology of the Society of Friends and a fierce campaign against any state sanctioning of religious practice. On the latter score, Fisher became a well-known agitator against the establishment of the Sabbath in the legal codes of Pennsylvania and elsewhere in the Union. As part of the rise in religious fervor during the first third of the nineteenth century, the Sabbatarian movement sprang up to oppose and outlaw then-common business practices like Sunday mail...

SCHMUCKER, Samuel Simon

SCHMUCKER, Samuel Simon (1799–1873)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...was ordained and began ministering small congregations formerly led by his uncle in the vicinity of New Market in Shenandoah County, Virginia. As the most highly educated Lutheran minister of his generation, he was soon promoting the unification of Lutheran churches and the establishment of institutions for training Lutheran ministers in America. In 1820 he and his father participated in the organization of the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. Schmucker composed its constitution and its hymnal. Schmucker then led the effort to found the first...

CHASE, Salmon Portland

CHASE, Salmon Portland (1808–1873)   Reference library

Alexandra Perry

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...oath, and wrong also in the establishment of despotic military governments for the States and in authorizing military commissions for the trial of civilians in time of peace. There should have been as little military government as possible; no military commissions; no classes excluded from suffrage; and no oath except one of faithful obedience and support to the Constitution and laws, and of sincere attachment to the constitutional Government of the United States.” ( Chase Papers , vol. 5, 222). During the years of the Civil War, there were repeated clashes...

CROCKER, Hannah Mather

CROCKER, Hannah Mather (1752–1829)   Reference library

Eileen Botting

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...education should be the same for both sexes. Reform of female education would eventually eliminate any appearance of systematic, innate differences in the intellectual capacities and interests of the sexes. In addition to establishing St. Ann’s Lodge, Crocker advocated the establishment of female literary societies in her Letters on Free Masonry . Crocker’s Observations also suggested that the freedom and strength of the American republic depended on the equal education of the sexes. Crocker was a critic of the oppression of women in the family. She argued...

DAVIES, Samuel

DAVIES, Samuel (1723–1761)   Reference library

John Fea

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...Davies was careful to defend a rational Presbyterian evangelicalism by rejecting the antinomian tendencies of his more radical religious neighbors. By promoting a Calvinism that was concerned with producing moral citizens for Virginia, Davies won the respect of the political establishment in the colony. He used this influence to defend the right of religious toleration for Protestant dissenters when it was threatened by the Anglican government. Davies’s commitment to this kind of social religion was evident in all of his writings, both his sermons and his...

WALKER, James

WALKER, James (1794–1874)   Reference library

Robin Vandome

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...Charlestown, Massachusetts, where he spent twenty-one years and gained a reputation as an eloquent and stirring preacher. Walker’s most significant legacy lay in his contribution to the development of Unitarianism as a religious movement. Walker played an active role in the establishment of the American Unitarian Association in 1825 , the group which formalized the independent identity of the Unitarian church. As editor of the Christian Examiner from 1831 to 1839 , Walker contributed many theological articles, and opened the journal’s pages to a broad...

CAREY, Henry Charles

CAREY, Henry Charles (1793–1879)   Reference library

Marc-William Palen

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...and natural science. Man was but the “molecule of society … the subject of social science,” and “the great law of molecular gravitation” was “the indispensible condition of the being called man” (vol. 1, 41, 42). The protective tariff was therefore a force that “tends to the establishment of decentralization, and to the production of local employment for time and talent, tends to give value to land, to promote its division, and to enable parents and children to remain in closer connection with each other” (vol. 1, 45). Money advanced financial progress....

DICKINSON, John

DICKINSON, John (1732–1808)   Reference library

Joseph Palencik

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...). He continued his philanthropic and humanitarian efforts with his wife Mary Norris until her death in 1803 . As part of this effort he donated a considerable part of his fortune to the relief of suffering among the poor. He also made a very large donation towards the establishment of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Dickenson contracted a severe fever and died on 14 February 1808 . Heralded as a great American statesman, patriot, and political theorist, Dickenson would guide a fledgling nation to greatness. He was tenderly remembered by his...

FRANKLIN, Benjamin

FRANKLIN, Benjamin (1706–1790)   Reference library

Cornelis de Waal and Monica Morrison

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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... offered him employment as a shopkeeper. Denham died not long after, and Franklin returned to working as a printer with Keimer. He continued working with Keimer until 1728 , when he began his own printing business with Hugh Meredith , an apprentice of Keimer. Along with the establishment of his own printing press, Franklin also created Junto (or the “Leather Apron Club”), a private club, whose members were young men interested in political and social theory, general philosophy, and business. Franklin continued to publish small essays and pamphlets that...

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rodes

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rodes (1814–1899)   Reference library

Judith A. Wiener

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...and the ability to unlock mental abilities and prevent and cure disease through the practice of both disciplines. In his various works and speeches, Buchanan expressed his strong views on the prevention of disease and his distrust of traditional medicine and the medical establishment. In an article in the periodical The Arena , Buchanan chastised physicians for getting carried away with enthusiasm for the germ theory of disease and instead, urged physicians to look towards healthful living as the way to prevent disease and ensure the restoration of health...

Cooper, Myles

Cooper, Myles (1737–1785)   Reference library

Derek C. Hatch

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...Relative to an American Episcopate” ( 1774 ). This document was signed by eight persons, but it is likely that most of it came from Cooper. Ultimately, though, it also failed to persuade the Virginia clergy (and consequently, other southern clergypersons) to support the establishment of an American episcopate, a proposition that gradually lost support as tensions mounted between the American colonies and England. Cooper went to England to obtain aid for the college in 1771 , but he returned to New York near the onset of the American Revolution in 1775 ....

KAUFMANN, Peter

KAUFMANN, Peter (1800–1869)   Reference library

Joseph Palencik

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...the unity of man and God through love. Kaufmann was particularly drawn to this idea, especially in the imagery Tauler used, which included the picture of Jesus’s shared poverty with simple folk of his time. Later, around 1825 , Kaufmann acted on these sentiments with the establishment of the country’s first labor-for-labor store. It was a project likely inspired in 1824 when Kaufmann met with Owen, who had begun his own labor-for-labor store in Scotland. Always one to prefer the latitudes of many simultaneous projects, Kaufmann completed his second book...

BLAND, Richard

BLAND, Richard (1710–1776)   Reference library

Karen D. Hoffman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...of the general assembly’s power to enact laws, though Bland’s argument appealed primarily to the rights granted to Englishmen by the English constitution rather than to universal principles. Couching his argument in the appeals to the historical circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Virginia colony, Bland noted that Virginians were not a conquered people but were the free descendants of Englishmen and, as such, were “only subject to laws made with their own consent” (Bland 1965 , 319). Moreover, laws concerning the internal governance of the...

WILLARD, Samuel

WILLARD, Samuel (1640–1707)   Reference library

Harry Clark Maddux

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...Colony’s identity as a bulwark of Puritan belief. He was also among those in the 1680s who advocated submission to the crown’s attempt to re-establish control over the colonies by its insistence on religious toleration. However, after the loss of the charter in 1684 and the establishment of the Dominion of New England, he increasingly found himself opposed to the policies of the crown. It was during this period (in 1688 ), that he began to preach his famous series of sermons explicating the Westminster Catechism. He would do so for the remainder of his life....

DWIGHT, Timothy

DWIGHT, Timothy (1752–1817)   Reference library

Kyle Welty

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...the vengeful war, The native malice, envy, pride, and strife, The plagues of rank, the rust of useless life, The cumbrous pomp, of general want the spring, The clashing commerce and the rival king. (151–2) Dwight’s lyrics may ring naively hopeful today, but the odd blend of optimism and fear in the fledgling republic must be remembered. It is interesting to note Dwight’s emphasis upon American egalitarianism. While Dwight is caricatured for his revulsion to republicanism and remembered for his efforts to preserve the Congregationalist establishment in...

DICKINSON, Jonathan

DICKINSON, Jonathan (1688–1747)   Reference library

John Fea

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...New Jersey. Dickinson persuaded the congregation to join the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1717 . He spent the rest of his career ministering to this congregation. From his post in Elizabeth Town he led mid-Atlantic Presbyterianism through its formative decades following the establishment of the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1706 . Dickinson is best known as one of the founders and the first President ( April 1747 to October 1747 ) of the College of New Jersey at Princeton (later Princeton University). He died suddenly in Princeton on 7 October 1747 . He is...

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