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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Holy War

Holy War   Reference library

Werner Wolbert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,690 words

...wars of Joshua and Judges are no longer understood as historical reports on a practice before the establishment of the kingdom. For Fritz Stolz, the ideology of Yahweh’s war took its initial form under Josiah (Deuteronomy) and became fully established during the Babylonian exile. The wars of Joshua and Judges have to be understood as later interpretations of ancient events. What existed before was a variety of religious practices similar to those of Israel’s neighbors. This is obfuscated by the term “Yahweh’s war,” which insinuates that this concept of war is...

War

War   Reference library

Timothy J. Demy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,775 words

...in 1 and 2 Maccabees. Viewed by Jews as a religious war that was coupled with strong political motivations, this revolt led to the establishment of the independent Jewish kingdom that combined the offices of high priest and king. It also resulted in the rise of several distinct groups in Judaism, such as those who lived in the region of the Dead Sea ( 250 b.c.e .– 70 c.e. ) and who generated the scrolls discovered there in 1947 . These scrolls and fragments contain one document popularly known as “The War Scroll” (1QM, first century b.c.e .). It is...

Killing

Killing   Reference library

Jacobus (Kobus) Kok

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,773 words

...expected his followers to do the same. The problem of the church today, according to Hays, is that it is heavily compromised and too committed to nationalism and violence. That is true for liberation theology as well as for “establishment Christianity that continues to play chaplain to the military-industrial complex, citing just war theory and advocating the defense of a particular nation as though that were somehow a Christian value” ( 1996 , p. 343). According to Hays, those who claim to live and embody the text cannot do otherwise than acknowledge that...

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya (1901–74)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
2,417 words

...against the Ottomans in the Crimean war ( 1853–6 ). Hilmi Ziya had his primary, secondary and higher education in the last phase of the Ottoman Empire. The proclamation of the Second Constitutional Government ( 25 July 1908 ), the dethronement of the Sultan Abdulhamid II ( 27 April 1909 ), the Balkan Wars ( 1912–15 ) and the First World War ( 1915 ) were some of the events of Hilmi Ziya 's childhood and adolescence. He witnessed the tribulations of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the struggles in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. Hilmi...

Land

Land   Reference library

Karen J. Wenell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...crimes of the present-day situation in Palestine/Israel, just as Christians had to come to terms with the crimes of World War II and their role in perpetuating forms of anti-Judaism. Others have also preferred a more universal reading, attempting to deal with the question: in a post-Holocaust era, can one critique Israel and avoid the charge of anti-Semitism that potentially results from the strong connections between the establishment of the State of Israel and the Holocaust? Recently, Judith Butler has put forward an argument in dialogue with Jewish...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

Jack R. Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,349 words

...united his color and destiny. Man cannot separate what God hath joined.” Noah’s curse is mysterious in its origins, sparse in its details, and lacks the divine approbation later generations would assign to it, but it was widely understood by proslavery advocates as the divine establishment of the racial subordination of blacks in the role of Canaan’s descendants and a chief rationale for their enslavement. The historical difficulties of casting Africans as the descendants of Canaan or Ham were noticed by few Americans and readily overcome by the lure of a divine...

Justice

Justice   Reference library

Neil Elliott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,245 words

...life (the Ark of the Covenant). Justice and monarchy. With the appearance of an Israelite monarchy in the tenth century, however, the language of storm theophany and the dismay of rival kings, known from premonarchic traditions, was harnessed in the Zion psalms to extol the establishment of Jerusalem as the king’s fortified city ( Psalm 48 ). Yahweh’s judgments ( mišpaṭim ) and justice ( ṣedaqah ) were invoked as endowments of the king and the king’s son ( Ps 72:1 ). The king will judge the people rightly, and the lowly or poor (the ‘ aniyim ) with justice...

Flesh

Flesh   Reference library

Pieter Botha

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,193 words

... 1976 ). With these terms Paul and his followers characterize and marginalize different types of Christians; the clearly negative associations of flesh allowing the appropriation of such terms to effect power-laden language in the formation of Christian identities and the establishment of their “place” in the world ( Reis, 2009 , p. 590). We have trouble remembering, collectively, that the discipline of the flesh is not always its mortification, nor that of the spirit its disembodiment. [ See also Body and Embodiment ; Human Being ; Marriage and Divorce...

History of Interpretation: New Testament

History of Interpretation: New Testament   Reference library

David Lincicum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,966 words

...and commentaries in which the New Testament had an important role, and part of the interest of the period lies in seeing the nature of the interpretation as engaged rather than impartial. Among major innovations rooted in this period, one of the most significant is the establishment of the text of the New Testament. Erasmus published the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament in 1516 and then several subsequent editions ( 1519 , 1522 , 1527 , and 1535 ) together with Latin translation and notes (the Complutensian Polyglot had been printed...

Righteousness

Righteousness   Reference library

Néstor O. Míguez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,029 words

...to the law] ( Rom 5:15–17 ). It is not the suspension of justice but a new way of its manifestation that brings life instead of condemnation. In baptism believers are crucified with Jesus, in the hope of resurrection ( Rom 6:3–4 ). Therefore, they partake in the establishment of this alternative way of God’s justice, so the believers themselves become instruments of God justice; they are, in fact, to serve justice in their condition of those that have passed from death to life ( Rom 6:11–19 ). The Hellenistic influence was to be felt and late...

Ibn al-‘Arabi, Muhyiddin

Ibn al-‘Arabi, Muhyiddin (560–638)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
4,609 words

...also on succeeding generations, affecting the whole course of subsequent spiritual thought and practice in the Arabic, Turkish and Persian-speaking worlds. In recent years his writings have also become increasingly the subject of interest and study in the West, leading to the establishment of an international academic society in his name. His teachings have been at the heart of almost all Sufi doctrine throughout the Islamic world, more or less overtly, revealing a universal character that made the founding of a particular dervish order in his name impossible....

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Reinhard Achenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,044 words

...by the attempt to extinguish God’s people though genocide ( Exod 1–2 ). It further describes the origin of the people of Israel as the soteriological result of being freed from slavery ( Exod 3–17 ), the creation of their ethnic identity in their encounter with God, and the establishment of a legal order organized by theonomous principles ( Exod 18–34 ). The religious dimension of this interaction with God is exemplified by the regulation of ritual encounters with the divine in the desert, i.e., in an intangible sphere of freedom and immediateness. The book...

Sources and Backgrounds

Sources and Backgrounds   Reference library

Daniele Pevarello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,744 words

..., p. 17). In the prologue of Mesopotamian legal texts, the deities are often portrayed in the act of entrusting the king with the task of administering justice and taking care of the needy ( Walton, 1989 , p. 91). A typical example of this involvement of the deity in the establishment of the law is the bas-relief on the stele found in Susa, which contains the 282 laws of the Code of Hammurabi . In this depiction, the king Hammurabi is shown in the act of receiving the insignia of the administration of the law from the god Shamash. The concept of justice,...

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...

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