You are looking at 1-20 of 62 entries  for:

  • All: war establishment x
  • Art & Architecture x
clear all

View:

Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
National Endowment for the Arts

National Endowment for the Arts   Reference library

Julie Van Camp and Julie Van Camp

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,298 words

...to establish a national arts agency grew in vigor and intensity after World War II. New York Senator Jacob K. Javits, a leader in the bipartisan efforts that led to the establishment of the NEA, introduced a resolution in 1949 calling for a national theater, opera, and ballet. President Harry S. Truman asked the Commission on Fine Arts to recommend ways that the federal government could support the arts. In 1955 , President Dwight D. Eisenhower urged the establishment of a Federal Advisory Commission on the Arts, and legislation was introduced with...

Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism   Reference library

Lucrezia Cippitelli

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,663 words

...out all the risks of an exoticist discourse about contemporary art (and culture at large). The criticism of the language of the Eurocentric discourse on arts, according to a postcolonial perspective, had as main output the critique of the whole establishment of “contemporary art” legitimized from after World War II to the present as “international.” It is therefore inappropriate to find exemplifications of postcolonial aesthetics referring to specific artworks or artists. In fact, postcolonial critique affected, after the Havana Biennale and “Third Text,” mainly...

Systems Theory

Systems Theory   Reference library

Eve Meltzer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,127 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the discourse of art as well as that for many, the system of all systems was the so-called Establishment and that, therefore, matters of power were most at issue. The American artist Robert Smithson, most remembered for his earthwork Spiral Jetty ( 1970 ), worked with systems of many sorts in his broad, multimedia oeuvre: perspectival, cartographic, mineralogical, among them. In response to the questionnaire, Smithson drafted an essay titled “The Establishment,” in which he, like Derrida, saw systems subtending everything. Only for Smithson, this...

Monuments

Monuments   Reference library

Marita Sturken and James E. Young

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,047 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of war monuments had been to valorize the suffering in such a way as to justify, and even redeem, it historically. But for these artists, such monuments would have been tantamount to betraying not only their experience of the Great War, but also their new reasons for art’s existence after the war: to challenge the world’s realities, not affirm them. As Albert E. Elsen has noted, modern and avant-garde sculptors between the wars in Europe were thus rarely invited to commemorate either the victories or the losses, the battles or the war dead of World War I. If...

Aleatoric Processes

Aleatoric Processes   Reference library

Yayoi Uno Everett

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,669 words

...principle only in the twentieth century. The twentieth-century preoccupation with chance emanates from the confluence of cultural, scientific, philosophical, and psychological trends that emerged at the turn of the twentieth century. Dadaists, in their rebellion against establishment, initiated radical experimentation with chance in the domains of visual art, music, and poetry. In the scientific world, Niels Bohr’s and Werner Heisenberg’s interpretations of quantum physics replaced Newtonian principles, emphasizing the dynamic and relativistic models of...

Pop Art

Pop Art   Reference library

Sara Doris

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,337 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the individual to achieve universal modes of expression. On a more prosaic note, it was noted, it had effectively preempted the role of the art critic—the art expert —in being embraced and taken up by galleries and nouveau riche collectors before the critical establishment had had an opportunity to pass judgment. Two years later in his essay “The Artworld,” aesthetician Arthur Danto would explore the philosophical implications of Pop’s internalization of the critical, or theoretical, function. A 1964 encounter with Warhol’s Brillo Boxes —sil...

Robotics

Robotics   Reference library

Chris Chesher

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,828 words

...motionless while the visitors are engaged. It is only once the visitor loses interest and turns away that it starts to follow them around the room. Robotics is a multidisciplinary field that is developing quickly with the availability of less expensive components and the establishment of more companies and research institutes. At the same time, robotics is diversifying as a field. From large-scale military robots to entertainment, from manufacturing to electronic art, it remains hard to generalize about the field. It seems likely that some areas of robotics...

Bearden, Romare

Bearden, Romare (1911–1988)   Reference library

Jacqueline Francis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the profile of African American artists and black cultural expressions across the African diaspora. He was a founding member of Spiral, a New York-based black artists collective ( 1963–1965 ); an officer in the Harlem Cultural Council in the 1960s and 1970s; a force in the establishment of the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1968 ; a consultant to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library; and a speaker invited to numerous U.S. college campuses, libraries, and museums to give workshops and lecture on historical and contemporary...

Gay Aesthetics

Gay Aesthetics   Reference library

Christopher Reed

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,662 words

...one helped concretize what it was intended to stigmatize, opening career paths for many gay men and giving visual definition to certain commodities and designs as symbols of gay identity. The image of Michelangelo’s David , for instance—reproduced as signage for commercial establishments and as plaster casts for interior decor—became one such commodity, propelled by its obvious embodiment of a standard of masculine beauty and by the association of Michelangelo’s biography with the history of homosexuality. The latter point is important, for it demonstrates...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

Jeffrey K. Olick

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,792 words

... In the realm of culture, threatened elites developed qualitative distinctions to dramatize and defend their exalted status. Although the newly emerging middle classes might achieve material equality, there was to be no doubt that they were not true equals of the older establishment, who distinguished themselves through their level of aesthetic and intellectual cultivation. Old elites engaged in processes of cultural entrepreneurship, founding art museums and symphony societies in which to entrench their cultural values and, thereby, defend their social...

Models, Artists’

Models, Artists’   Reference library

Elizabeth Hollander

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,703 words

...of human proportion and musculature, which for many artists entailed a far more thorough examination of the body’s capacity for movement than either cadavers or casts could provide. Most important, the increasing rationalization of the fine arts brought about the establishment of arts academies, and with them the institution of the life class. Although the earliest academies were formed for the purposes of establishing and debating theoretical precepts, they soon became sites of organized practical study. The Carracci started their academy in 1582 ...

Anti-Art

Anti-Art   Reference library

Simon Anderson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,972 words

...explosive movement that first developed in neutral Zurich during World War I, that is perhaps most closely associated with anti-art. Dada was the crucible in which many of the recognizable attributes of anti-art were formed, and Dada is responsible for some of the confusion that still surrounds—and is perhaps inevitably a part of—anti-art. A complex alchemy in which antiauthority protest was distilled from a romantic, even Expressionist impatience with the stolidity of the art establishment, transmuted through chance operations, and sublimated by a poetic...

Death

Death   Reference library

Elisabeth Bronfen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,822 words

...and omnipotent, eternal, intact symbolic order, but can do so only by incessantly addressing the opposition between death and life. As the sociologist Jean Baudrillard argues, the phenomenon of survival must be seen in contingency with a prohibition of death and the establishment of social surveillance of this prohibition. Power is first and foremost grounded in legislating death, by manipulating and controlling the exchange between life and death, by severing the one from the other and by imposing a taboo on the dead. Power is thus installed precisely...

Outsider Art

Outsider Art   Reference library

Colin Rhodes

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,831 words

...and “Intuitive,” and at times arguments have been made that the field should not even exist. However, Outsider Art is the term most commonly used and its parameters are generally understood. The debate has occurred in many places over the years, but overall its establishment as a field of study is best represented in the accumulated pages of the international journal of Outsider Art, Raw Vision (first published in 1989 ). The Shape of the Field. The specific term “Outsider Art” can be traced to the title of a book from 1972 by British academic...

Sociology of Art

Sociology of Art   Reference library

Vera L. Zolberg

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,215 words

...formulations, by the end of the World War II, with the destruction or undermining of much European scholarship by totalitarian regimes, or under their military occupation, American sociology, along with American science more generally, became the most dynamic and expansive in the world. This growth was a counterpart to the prominence of the United States on the international scene as the champion of Western humanist values before and during World War II and the defender of cultural freedom during the Cold War. American social scientific scholarship,...

Iconoclasm

Iconoclasm   Reference library

Christopher S. Wood and James Simpson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,151 words

...of considerable refinement. The images were restored, but they were subject to strict formal and antimimetic aesthetic conventions designed to ward off any animistic identification of the image with its sacred model and to conceal the traces of human fabrication. The establishment of Islam is associated with the destruction, in 630, of images of Arabian gods housed in the Kaaba in Mecca. The Qur’an itself has little or nothing to say about images or pictorial representation. But the text frequently condemns the worship of “idols” or “statues,” which was...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Anne Hollander, Anne Hollander, Richard Martin, and Marie-Aude Baronian

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,019 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by painters such as Raoul Dufy. After World War I, fashion for women began to modernize more abruptly, and Poiret’s distinctive, leisurely elegance gave way to brisker modes as fashionable women went to work, took to more active sports, and wished to appear immature rather than ripe. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel is now the most famous couturière associated with the period between the wars, partly because her vision of modern feminine style proved so prophetic as to allow her to renew her career well after World War II, following nearly twenty years of obscure...

View: