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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

American Legion

American Legion   Reference library

Lynn Dumenil

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...American “justice, freedom, and democracy” throughout the twentieth century. During World War II, legionnaires were active in organizing local civil defense. In addition, the legion became officially associated with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, assisting government agents in investigating enemy aliens. At war’s end, an infusion of new veterans swelled the membership roster to 3.5 million. In keeping with their anti-Communist stance, legionnaires during the Cold War adamantly insisted upon the need to roust “subversives” from government service and other...

Veterans’ Rights Movement

Veterans’ Rights Movement   Reference library

Ron Milam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...payments to veterans of World War I. Known as the Bonus Army, the assemblage had to be cleared by the U.S. Army. That the American servicemen and their families felt the need to assemble for their rights is a reminder of the love-hate relationship of American citizens to their veterans. The Bonus Army served as a model for future veterans who wanted to bring attention to issues that detrimentally affected their lives. After World War II. Though the American political establishment responded to veterans’ needs after World War II with positive initiatives such...

Einstein, Albert

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955)   Reference library

Robert J. Schulmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...physics, eventually led to the establishment of the Manhattan Project and U.S. development of the atomic bomb. Becoming a U.S. citizen in 1940 (while also retaining Swiss citizenship), Einstein devoted himself to the search for a unified field theory, but also increasingly spoke out on public issues. Einstein retained an abiding commitment to establishing and maintaining a homeland for Jews, with an emphasis on equality of rights between Jews and Arabs. Like many fellow scientists, he feared a nuclear arms race after World War II. He initially advocated a...

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa (1945–1989)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...political competition among Africans themselves provided further opportunities for foreign intervention. China also played a role in the Cold War in Africa, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Although China and the Soviet Union shared roughly the same Communist objectives, an ideological rivalry emerged between the two powers in the early 1960s. China’s diplomatic contact with Africa, which began with the establishment of its first African diplomatic mission in Cairo, Egypt , in 1956 , was initially based on supporting African revolutionary movements. From...

N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena, Chad   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Chad Capital, largest city, and economic center of Chad. N’Djamena lies at the confluence of the Logone and Chari rivers close to Chad ’s border with Cameroon and 80 km (50 mi) southeast of Lake Chad. Known as Fort Lamy from its establishment until September 1973 when President François Tombalbaye “Africanized” all French place names, N’Djamena acquired its present name from a small Kotoko fishing village, Am-Djamena, founded on the site by the nineteenth century. In 1900 the French defeated and killed the Sudanese slaver Rabih...

Buckley, William F., Jr.

Buckley, William F., Jr. (1925–2008)   Reference library

J. David Hoeveler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Buckley himself did not develop a consistent intellectual conservatism; his opinions could reflect any of the varieties he welcomed in his magazine. Usually, however, he saw American conservatives as a beleaguered minority standing against a dominant and privileged liberal establishment. Against this ascendancy, Buckley defended a conservative counterculture and its tribal loyalists. Through his longevity, sustained productivity, and public visibility, Buckley served the conservative intellectual movement as a paterfamilias. [ See also Anti-Communism ; ...

Robertson, Pat

Robertson, Pat (1930– ))   Reference library

Trollinger William Vance

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...including the “700 Club,” a chat/news show that by the early twenty-first century could be seen in 97 percent of American homes. CBN (now headquartered in Virginia Beach) established Robertson as America's most important charismatic leader, a status reinforced by the establishment ( 1978 ) and growth of CBN (later Regent) University. With the 1980 Washington for Jesus rally, Robertson emerged as a leader of the Religious Right. An unsuccessful candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1988 , he founded the influential Christian...

Islamic Salvation Front

Islamic Salvation Front   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Salvation Front Outlawed political party in Algeria that advocates the establishment of an Islamic state. Islam has been an important presence in Algeria since the seventh century, and during the twentieth century, Islamic groups played a critical role in the struggle against French Colonial Rule. The movement for an Islamic state in Algeria dates from this struggle, gaining momentum after 1978 , when Iranians revolted against the shah and established the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the 1980s the Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut, or...

Lyceum Movement

Lyceum Movement   Reference library

Dustin E. Hannum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to incorporate the term lyceum into its name was the Lyceum of Natural History, founded in New York in 1817 , the movement is generally traced to 1826 , when Josiah Holbrook, a Yale graduate, published a letter in the American Journal of Education proposing the establishment of a society devoted to the purposes of mutual education. Still, Holbrook did envision a society largely devoted to the subject of nineteenth-century science, holding public lectures, experiments, and demonstrations in various topics for members of the community, who would...

General Federation of Women’s Clubs

General Federation of Women’s Clubs   Reference library

Sarah Kapit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the period from 1900 to 1920 . Animated by the principle of “municipal housekeeping,” or the idea that women ought to transfer their skills as mothers and housekeepers to the public sphere, affiliated clubs embarked on a variety of projects that included conservation, establishment of public libraries, city beautification, reforms of the education system, and reforms of government policies related to American Indians. In some states, clubs were actively involved in the struggle for women’s suffrage. After the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920 ,...

Tourism

Tourism   Reference library

Evan Ward

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Clemens's sardonic travel memoir, Innocents Abroad , as well as by the impact of the automobile on domestic tourism after the turn of the twentieth century. The rise of the automobile coincided with the work of Progressives, including Theodore Roosevelt, who encouraged the establishment of national parks. Later tourism innovators, including Laurance Rockefeller, created hotel infrastructures at such parks through the family's subsidiary, RockResorts. The varied landscapes of a continental nation remained an important draw for international as well as domestic...

Clergy

Clergy   Reference library

Kathryn Gin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...intensive theological training, which was unavailable to the general public. Their success, however, spurred the populists toward the establishment of their own colleges and seminaries in an effort to compete with the older and wealthier denominations. The major denominations split over the slavery issue in the antebellum era. By and large, the clergy became cheerleaders for their respective causes during the Civil War itself. Chaplains on both sides spurred camp revivals among soldiers whose thoughts turned to death on the verge of battle. After...

Crusades

Crusades (1096)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...and defend these lands from infidels (non-Christians). Thousands of Christians took vows to join what they believed was a just and holy war, though arguably their leaders had more interest in controlling the rich markets and trade routes of the East than in converting unbelievers. Many scholars see the Crusades as a precursor to the European wars of conquest in the Americas and parts of Africa two centuries later, wars also justified on religious grounds. Though the Crusades transformed the history and consciousness of western Europe, Islamic rulers at the...

Football

Football   Reference library

Steven A. Riess

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...play ( 1933 ), the College All-Star game ( 1934 ), and a player draft ( 1936 ) to increase competition. After World War II, the new All-American Football Conference ( 1946–1949 ), with franchises across the country, competed with the NFL. Television in the 1950s boosted the pro game, which continued to grow in popularity thereafter. The establishment of the rival American Football League in 1960 encouraged the NFL to expand. The bidding war for players led to a merger in 1966 and the first “Superbowl” one year later. The sport was dominated in the 1960s...

New York City

New York City   Reference library

Scott Spillman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the War of 1812 , when New York's population had grown to nearly 150,000, reformers convinced the city to establish the New York Institution of Learned and Scientific Establishments, which housed the young Academy of Fine Arts (f. 1801 ) and New-York Historical Society (f. 1804 ). New literary clubs brought together the city's growing community of writers and artists, including William Cullen Bryant, Thomas Cole, and James Fenimore Cooper. The crucial years in New York's rise to national prominence were the two decades just before the Civil War. By that...

Pacific Rim

Pacific Rim   Reference library

Christopher Connery

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...anti-imperialism. U.S. militaristic designs on Asia, from the Philippine War through the Pacific War, the Korean War, and Vietnam, establishing a network of military bases that are largely intact today, represent a more pure and stark expression of power projection than the more coexistential fantasies of Pacific Rim discourse. But even given this military expansionist impulse, significant sectors of the foreign-policy establishment continued to be oriented toward Europe. When World War II and its aftermath consigned isolationism permanently to the margins,...

Wealth

Wealth   Reference library

Noam Maggor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...property. The vast majority of the city’s population at that time—84 percent of the households—owned little to no property. The Civil War marked a turning point in the history of American wealth. The war displaced the planters from their dominant position, and the emancipation of the slaves meant the end of the largest concentration of property in the United States , though planters did hold on to their property in land. The war also signaled a new phase of rapid industrialization, which created extraordinary openings for profit. Industrialists led the way,...

September 11th, 2001

September 11th, 2001   Reference library

David Simpson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of postmodernism, and the inevitable onset of a new age of ethical responsibility and plain speaking. As the political and military establishments called themselves to attention, so too did those enlisted in the culture wars that had been occasional headlines in the American media at least since the Reagan years. At the same time, other voices were raised against the rush to judgment and above all against the rush to a “war on terror” that took no precise account of who the enemy might be and where they were to be found. Such voices were, in the mood of the...

Judaism

Judaism   Reference library

Henry L. Feingold

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...for their services, introduced choral reading of prayer and family pews rather than separate seating for men and women and ended the sale of privileges such as reading from the Torah. Their model naturally reflected the aesthetics of the surrounding Protestant churches. The establishment of Hebrew Union College (HUC) in 1875 and the codification of Reformist principles and practices in the so-called Pittsburgh Platform ten years later, followed by the organization of the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR) in 1889 , was welcomed by CCAR's president...

Transition

Transition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...But ideological tensions and personal difficulties frustrated Neogy, and in 1974 he resigned in favor of Wole Soyinka, the Nigerian writer, who had himself only recently been jailed by the Nigerian government for his efforts to end the Biafran War. Soyinka’s Transition was less interested in “establishment democracy” than the “African revolution” and the black diaspora; it covered the sixth Pan-African Congress, the successful armed struggle in Guinea-Bissau, the Black Power Movement in the United States, and the cultural production of Afro-Brazilians....

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