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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

armies, Islamic

armies, Islamic   Reference library

Ryan Lynch

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...standing army at the beginning of the Arab conquests, a heritage of tribal raiding in the Arabian Peninsula had hardened the Arabian majority that made up the armies into a capable fighting force. They were primarily paid through the spoils of war, and units were organized along tribal lines. The establishment of the stipendiary register of the army ( diwan ) brought about a system for payment through taxation ; individual registers for garrisoned troops were maintained in cities throughout the Islamic world, and so armies came to be organized by the city...

Hephthalites

Hephthalites   Reference library

Mark Dickens

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...de l’empire Hephthalite dans les sources byzantines et perses et le problème des Avar’, ActAntHung 28 (1980), 219–48. S. Kuwayama , ‘The Hephthalites in Tokharistan and Northwest India’, Zinbun 24 (1989), 89–134. B. A. Litvinsky in HCCA III, 135–83. D. Sinor , ‘The Establishment and Dissolution of the Türk Empire’, in CHEIA I (1990), 298–301. É. de la Vaissière , ‘Is There a “Nationality” of the Hephtalites?’, Bulletin of the Asia Institute 17 (2007), 119–32. G. Widengren , ‘Xosrau Anoširvan, les Hephthalites et les peuples Turcs’, Orientalia...

Franks

Franks   Reference library

Helmut Reimitz

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the West. The division of the Carolingian Empire led to the development of France, Germany, and other medieval and modern European countries and also fostered repeated reconceptualizations of the Roman and Frankish past to legitimize contemporary claims to power. The establishment of modern European nation states only intensified these efforts, as they increasingly sought to justify their independent existence and claim to rule by the construction of continuous histories that traced their origins back to late antique and early medieval peoples (Geary, ...

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism   Reference library

Khodādād Rezakhani

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...later medieval religious and secular texts as a hero of Zoroastrianism. Under Khosrow’s rule (531–79) a semblance of clerical organization can be discerned in the evidence. Seals of priest-judges holding various positions relating to social organization and local religious establishment have been found from this period. This suggests an effort to establish a religious organization that acted as the central government’s arm in dispensing social justice and perhaps curbing poverty and disillusionment. Whatever their power, the clerical hierarchy could not have...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Ralf Bockmann

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., which belonged to the dioecesis of Oriens (later Aegyptus ). In the west, the dioecesis bordered Mauretania Tingitana that belonged to the dioecesis Hispaniae . The integrity of the African dioecesis was dissolved by the Vandal ingression into Africa and the establishment of the Vandal kingdom between 429 and 439 in Africa Proconsularis, parts of Numidia and Byzacena. In 455, the Western Roman government also lost effective control over the other African provinces. Alongside the Vandal kingdom, autochthonous states started to develop. In 533–4,...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Matthew Canepa

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Antiquity. These grew from indigenous traditions of communication and imperial administration within the two empires, eventually becoming a regular system in Late Antiquity. Diplomatic activities were managed by an educated bureaucracy and could range from the establishment of treaties ending wars or delineating spheres of influence, to requests for monetary or military assistance, to simple maintenance of relationships and information gathering. Because they were dominant in the Late Antique Mediterranean and Western Asia, Rome and Persia’s diplomatic...

Türks

Türks   Reference library

Mark Dickens

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...). Chavannes, Documents , passim . Chavannes, Notes , passim . Pien-i-tien : S. Julien, ‘Documents historiques sur les Tou-kioue (Turcs), extraits du Pien-i- tien’, Journal Asiatique (1864). Menander Protector, frs. 4.2, 10.1–5, 13.5, 19.1–2, 25.2. D. Sinor , ‘The Establishment and Dissolution of the Türk Empire’, in CHEIA I (1990), 285–316. D. Sinor and S. G. Klyashtorny in HCCA III, 327–47. J. Harmatta and B. A. Litvinsky in HCCA III, 367–83. M. R. Drompp , ‘Imperial State Formation in Inner Asia: The Early Turkic Empires (6th to 9th...

Ireland

Ireland   Reference library

Edel Bhreathnach

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...dotted throughout Ireland, often with internal mounds surrounded by at least one bank and ditch. Crannogs, small man-made islands built on raft-like foundations and protected with woven wooden palisades, are particularly prevalent in the Midland and northern Lakelands. The establishment of churches, and most especially monastic communities, contributed to economic and social change. Monasticism appears to have brought industrial mills and milling to Ireland, while such communities also provided for the poor in times of crisis and acted as trade...

Alexandria

Alexandria   Reference library

Christopher Haas and Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...had created and sustained ancient Alexandria. The transfer of the caliphate from Damascus to the plains of Mesopotamia in the mid-8th century, the gradual disappearance of the Canopic branch of the Nile and the attendant shift of trade to the east, and, finally, the re-establishment of an indigenous power in Egypt under the Tulunids and the Ikshidids with an emerging political centre at the apex of the Nile Delta, all contributed to the transformation of Alexandria from centre of commerce into its medieval function as a thaghr , that is, a frontier...

Mani

Mani   Reference library

Nicholas Baker-Brian and Matthew Canepa

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the Roman and Sasanian empires, and also, later, in areas under Islamic rule. The conversion to Manichaeism in the mid- 8th century of Tengri Bögü, the ruler of the Uighur (Uygur) Türk steppe Empire, initiated a renewal of the Manichaean Church in Asia. It led to the establishment of well-organized monastic institutions responsible for various cultural initiatives including translations of Late Antique Manichaean texts into a range of Central Asian languages, and the creation of new liturgical, communal, and historical writings. Manichaeism remained a...

Persian Empire, Christians in

Persian Empire, Christians in   Reference library

Christelle Jullien

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...is mentioned in the Syriac History of Karka d-Bet-Slokh and the unreliable Chronicle of Arbela . Arbela , became a metropolitan see under Bishop Papa (310–17). Settlements Wars between the Roman and Persian Empires deeply influenced the development of Christianity in Persian territory. A policy of mass deportations by the Persian armies contributed to the establishment of Greek - and Syriac -speaking populations, sometimes Christianized, in several places in the Persian Empire , especially after the military campaigns of Shapur I in 252/3,...

Visigoths

Visigoths   Reference library

Graham Barrett

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...prisoner since 410, a union which the historian Orosius deemed a sign of Athaulf’s willingness to join Roman service. Indeed Wallia , his successor but one, concluded a treaty with Constantius III in 418, recognizing Gothic settlement in and control of Aquitaine . The establishment of the Visigothic kingdom was the work of his successor Theoderic I the Visigoth , who broke the treaty with Rome intermittently to expand his realm, besieging Arles and fighting against the Roman general Aëtius . However, when the Huns sought his alliance in 450, he...

Arab conquest

Arab conquest   Reference library

Matthew Edwards, Andrew Marsham, Caroline Goodson, Sergio La Porta, Peter Sarris, Petra Sijpesteijn, Nicola Clarke, Mark Dickens, and Nicola Clarke

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the demise of the Sasanian regime, but despite the incentive of exemption from the jizya poll-tax, conversion to Islam in Iran was a lengthy process. With the death of ‘Uthman and the First Arab Civil War between ‘Ali (656–61) and Mu‘awiya I (661–80), the Muslims lost control of eastern Iran, but after Mu‘awiya’s victory and the establishment of Umayyad power, they reconquered Sistan and Khorasan, advancing as far as Kabul, recapturing Balkh (663), and garrisoning 50,000 Arab colonists in Merv (671). Crossing the Oxus first in 673, the Muslims...

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