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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Frontinus, Sextus Julius

Frontinus, Sextus Julius (c. ad 30)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
369 words

...of Wales led to the establishment of Caerleon and Chester as permanent legionary fortresses. He was probably responsible for initiating the programme of Roman urban development in Britain for which Tacitus ( On the Life of Agric-ola xxi) gave credit to his father-in-law, Agricola, who succeeded Frontinus as governor. In ad 97 Frontinus was commissioned to reorganize Rome ’s water supply and in 100 was awarded the unusual distinction of a third consulship. Frontinus wrote on the aqueducts of Rome , surveying, the art of war, stratagems and...

Gymnasium

Gymnasium   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
910 words
Illustration(s):
3

...[Gr. gymnasion ]. Ancient Greek and Roman sports and educational establishment. The barbarian prince Anacharsis, one of the seven sages of the ancient world, described the gymnasium as the place ‘in every Greek city where the populace go mad daily’ (Dio Chrysostom: Discourses xxxii.44), and it was certainly central to Greek urban life. It was conceived primarily as a public institution for the military and athletic training of young male citizens and for their intellectual and spiritual education. By c. 400 bc these combined activities had...

Corfu

Corfu   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,170 words
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1

...routes from Greece to the Balkans, Italy and Sicily led to the establishment of a colony in the early 8th century bc by settlers from Eretria on Euboia, who were displaced c. 734 bc by Corinthian colonists. The main settlement, close to modern Corfu town, was known as Kerkyra, which may be a corruption of Gorgon. Attempts by the settlers to assert their independence from Corinth eventually led to an alliance with Athens in 433 bc that initiated the Peloponnesian War ( 431–404 bc ). From 229 bc Corfu was under Roman rule, becoming part...

Delos

Delos   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,844 words
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4

... bc ; Delos , Archaeol. Mus.), found in the Minoe Fountain, depicts Artemis Offering Sacrifice . The goddess is shown standing between two young satyrs with a torch in each hand in front of her own image. The fashion for foreign deities was confirmed above all by the establishment of sanctuaries to Egyptian gods; first in the area around the River Inopos, then on the slopes of Mt Kynthos. The proliferation of Oriental, Syrian, Phoenician, Arabian and other cults followed, in conjunction with the growing commercial importance of the island and the...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,194 words
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2

...could hold two legions and auxiliary forces, was to endure for centuries, as is made clear by descriptions some 300 years later in De munitionibus castrorum , a technical treatise attributed to Hyginus. From at least the 1st century bc temporary camps and, later, permanent establishments assumed a standard rectangular shape with rounded corners, the so-called ‘playing-card’ plan. There were four gateways, one in each side, with the main one facing the potential enemy; inside there were two main roads at right angles to each other, forming a junction near the...

Roman Republic and Empire

Roman Republic and Empire   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,431 words
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3

...in character ( see Etruscan , §5 ) though influenced by Greek and Hellenized settlements to the south. From about the 3rd century bc , however, despite the continuation of strong regional trends, most of Italy was effectively Roman. Later, and especially from the establishment of the Principate by Augustus in 27 ad , major works of art throughout the Mediterranean carried the political aims and cultural values of Imperial Rome , employing the sophisticated visual language and intellectual content of Hellenistic civilization. In its turn this...

Pompeii

Pompeii   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
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11,282 words
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9

...architectural development can be divided into three phases that also reflect the political evolution of the city: the Pre-Samnite period ( 525–425 bc ), the Samnite period ( 425–80 bc ) and the Roman phase ( 80 bc – ad 79 ); the last may be further subdivided by the establishment of the Roman Empire under Augustus in 30 bc and by the earthquake of ad 62 . Doric capitals and column bases still visible in the Triangular Forum, as well as various artefacts uncovered during excavations, particularly in the Temple of Apollo, are evidence of Greek and...

Athens

Athens   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
17,145 words
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15

...of Peloponnesian War to Lykourgos . From 431 to 404 bc Athens was engaged in the debilitating Peloponnesian War against Sparta and its allies. Work ceased on the temples but continued on less costly civic buildings in the Agora . In the 420s bc a plague led to the foundation of a sanctuary of the healing god Asklepios on the south slopes of the Acropolis , though its remains—a Doric two-storey stoa and the foundations of a temple and altar—seem to date largely to the 4th century bc . Following their defeat in the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians...

Gem-Engraving

Gem-Engraving   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,147 words
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3

...animal style ( Florence , Mus. Archeol.) found in the precincts of the Archaic ‘palace’ at Poggio Civitate (Murlo). Such figures also occur on the earliest gold rings with oval bezels and intaglio devices, and derive from traditions of Phoenician goldwork. Before the establishment of local workshops, gems were imported from Ionian Greece and Cyprus , and the movement of specialized craftsmen from East Greece to Italy can be paralleled in other arts, such as black-figure pottery ( see Pottery , §IV, 5(vii) and V ). The first gems to be...

Collection and display of art

Collection and display of art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
14,071 words

...tradition is that connoisseurship can impart social and political status. The origins of this assumption lie in the art collecting tradition of the Classical world and the development of an appreciation of objects and artists, the attribution of new qualities to them and the establishment of the art market, patronage and history of art. 1. Greek. 2. Roman. 1. Greek. Art collecting in the Classical world has been related to a long established tradition of cultural beliefs that influenced the valuation and appreciation of material culture, of object possession...

Planning

Planning   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
10,147 words
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3

...by military circumstances. At Eboracum ( now York ) the expanded city was redesigned in the 3rd century ad to define separate military and civilian spheres either side of the river. (ii) Regional survey . Towards the end of the 1st century bc and especially after the establishment of the Empire under Augustus, greater prosperity brought a growth in population and an increase in the pressure of space even in the smaller towns. It was therefore at this time that many cities and towns were remodelled and new ones founded on more regular plans. The...

Rome

Rome   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
20,896 words
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...buildings as senate houses, mints, jails and water administration headquarters. Fountains proliferated, both grand scenic ones and mere tubs, while some houses had their own water supplies. Waste water flowed through the city to the Tiber from baths, fountains and commercial establishments. In ad 97 the new curator aquarum (director of water supplies), sextus julius Frontinus , wrote down the technical and legal record of his office. The work is preserved and gives a rare glimpse of the duties of an imperial administrator of rank and the problems he...

Pottery

Pottery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
83,455 words
Illustration(s):
27

...Towards the end of the 6th century bc , and perhaps reflecting the establishment of democracy at Athens , inscriptions came to be used more freely and the writing formed more casually, contrasting strongly with the elegance of the figures executed in the new Red-figure technique. This is particularly evident in the works of the Pioneer group, but such exuberance had already diminished by the early 5th century bc , as shown by the works of Douris, for example. Soon after the Persian Wars ( 490 and 480–479 bc ) vase painters began to be influenced by the...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
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41

...industry, adapted to the idiosyncrasies of individual artists and the requirements of specific commissions. Despite the reproductive nature of lost-wax casting, bronze statues were generally individualized by details given to the wax working model. Workshops were temporary establishments, closed down after casting was completed. Small statuettes ( see Metalwork , §IV, 2(i) ) might be cast solid, but larger figures were always cast hollow and in pieces that were then fitted or soldered together. Lost-wax casting in ancient Greece essentially differed...

Etruscan

Etruscan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
12,044 words
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4

...in an essentially urban context. (ii) Expansion . The period from c. 600 to the mid-5th century bc was one in which Etruscan power expanded, both on the Italian mainland and, notably, at sea. The exploitation of raw materials in southern Etruria was complemented by the establishment along the Tyrrhenian coast, from Caere ( Cerveteri ) to Pisa , of numerous port-like settlements, each dependent on a larger city slightly inland. These ports provided facilities both for commerce and for military expeditions, and at some (e.g. Gravisca, port of ...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...to cope with the demand. Roman military expansion continued during the 2nd century bc . After the victory over Carthage in the Second Punic War ( 218–202 bc ), Rome became a formidable power in the Mediterranean and was soon embroiled in wars with Macedon, which resulted in the annexation of Greece ( 146 bc ) and the formation of the province of Asia Minor ( 133 bc ). In the course of these wars, and with the sack of such great cities as Syracuse ( 212 bc ) and Corinth ( 146 bc ), many plundered works of art were brought to Rome . Despite...

Cyprus

Cyprus   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
27,628 words
Illustration(s):
8

...1050 bc ) . During the disturbed times indicated by the destruction and rebuilding of fortresses at the end of mcyp iii and the beginning of lcyp i , there is evidence of a dramatic change in Cypriot circumstances. This needs to be understood in the context of the establishment of Enkomi , a gateway city near the east coast of the island, and the expansion of Egyptian foreign trade inaugurated by Asiatic merchants and continued by the 18th Dynasty Egyptian kings ( c. 1540– c. 1292 bc ). It enabled Cyprus to increase radically its trading links...

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