You are looking at 1-20 of 582 entries  for:

  • All: war establishment x
  • Warfare and Defence x
clear all

View:

Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

war establishment

war establishment  

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.
Itagaki Seishiro, General

Itagaki Seishiro, General (1885–1948)   Reference library

Ian Nish

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Japanese Army officer born in Iwate prefecture, who graduated from the military academy and the war college ( Rikugun daigaku ). After regimental service, he became assistant military attaché in China. By 1930 he had been promoted to chief of staff of the Kwantung Army in which capacity he plotted, along with Colonel Ishiwara Kanji , the Manchurian Incident which was planned to give Japan greater control over the area ( see Manchukuo ). After the establishment of Manchukuo, in whose creation he was again a key figure, he became senior adviser in the...

Chiang, Madame

Chiang, Madame (1897–2003)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... Madam Chiang , who at some risk to herself had played an important role in the resolution of the Sian incident ( see Chiang Kai-Shek ) acquired new prominence. She organized work on behalf of China's war orphans ( see also children ), for which she received large sums of money from all over the world, and was involved in the establishment of co-operatives, war work among China's women, care for the wounded, children's education, and the rehabilitation of the homeless. In this she was greatly aided by a publicity campaign targeting official and private...

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45   Reference library

Hatano Sumio

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,487 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Soviet–Japanese balance of power had shifted against Japan. They started every effort to end hostilities through diplomatic channels. Whilst the outbreak of the European war in September 1939 convinced Moscow of the need to come to an agreement with Japan. Soviet and Japanese diplomats in Moscow arranged a cease-fire that became effective on 16 September, and agreed to the establishment of a joint committee to deal with demarcation of the border between Outer Mongolia and Manchukuo. The total killed in this first Japanese–Soviet clash reached a total of...

Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories

Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the four southern provinces in the name of the king, Victor Emmanuel III , and once Italy became a co-belligerent in October 1943 it operated only in combat zones. AMGOT had some difficulties in north-west Italy at the end of the war when the First French Army refused to withdraw and frustrated AMGOT's establishment there. Roosevelt resolved the situation by refusing the French any more military supplies until they withdrew, which they did on 10 June 1945 . There were also some difficulties in Trieste , which Tito 's forces had occupied, but this...

Kempei

Kempei   Reference library

Louis Allen

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
814 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was widespread, and in the pursuit of chian iji (the maintenance of order) they acquired a fearful and unsavoury reputation. In the immediate post-war period, many Kempei were tried and convicted for crimes against the civilian populations of occupied territories ( see also Far East war crimes trials ). Table 2 gives some idea of the proportions involved. Kempei, Table 2: Kempei involvement in warcrimes War crimes overall Incidents 2,230 Personnel 5,551 Kempei crimes Incidents 619 Personnel 1,534 Kempei sentences Death 447 Confirmed 317 Executed 312 Life...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Z. A. B. Zeman

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of war, neutral states start to play a more significant role in diplomacy. Their missions are sometimes requested to represent the interests of the combatants, and strategically placed neutral countries become meeting-points as well as escape routes. Switzerland and Sweden provided the meeting-ground for diplomats as well as spies in the Second World War; while Portugal became the gate through which refugees streamed out of Europe. The establishments of the foreign ministries in both Allied and Axis countries had grown everywhere before the war; the...

Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh

Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh (1882–1970)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...to the air ministry to scrutinize air establishments, and in July 1942 he retired at his own request. Nicknamed ‘Stuffy’ from his days at the Staff College, Camberley, Dowding had an austere, withdrawn personality. His vision, necessarily, was a narrow one and he was no politician, but his dedication to his task was total. In 1943 he became Baron Dowding of Bentley Priory, the name of his old Fighter Command Headquarters. He was knighted in 1933 . See also air power . Carver, M. (ed.), The War Lords (London, 1976). Collier, B. , Leader of...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Richard Crampton

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...a large share of Yugoslav Macedonia; full ownership was to await a peace treaty at the end of the war. When Greece was conquered the Bulgarians were given similar rights in eastern Macedonia and most of western Thrace, though much of Macedonia, including Salonika, remained under German control. The Bulgarians had always regarded Macedonia as theirs by right. Their rule therefore saw the introduction of Bulgarian education, including the establishment of a university in Skoplje. However, they overplayed their hand: excessive centralization, graft, and...

China

China   Reference library

Lyman P. Van Slyke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,716 words
Illustration(s):
4

...as the Pacific war unfolded, the USA came to play an increasingly important role in Chinese affairs, both directly and indirectly. British and Commonwealth forces were also heavily engaged in this phase of the struggle, particularly in the China–Burma–India theatre of operations. Finally, at the very end of the war, the USSR belatedly entered the war against the Japanese, stripped Manchukuo (Manchuria) of its industrial base, and signed favourable treaties with China. China's struggle with Japan and its participation in the Second World War was not, in...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...laid out. In effect, Canadian labour had its Magna Carta. At the same time, massive sums were pumped into housing, into the re-establishment of veterans, into export promotion. The government even pledged itself to the goal of full employment early in 1945 . Keynesianism had arrived in Canada with a vengeance, and the era of small government was gone. In 1939 , the federal budget had been $680 million; by 1945 , swollen with war expenditure, it was $5.1 billion, and Ottawa was making clear that it was prepared to spend just as freely in the peace. At the...

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia   Reference library

Paul Latawski

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... in June 1940 led to the transfer of Beneš's political activities to London and by the summer of 1941 he was leading a Provisional government of Czechoslovakia which received full recognition from the Allied powers. The diplomacy of Beneš aimed at the re-establishment of Czechoslovakia after the war. A major success was the British and Free French repudiation in August– September 1942 of the Munich agreement and its territorial changes. Beneš also made some half-hearted attempts at confederation with Poland in 1942 until Soviet objections put an end to...

engineers

engineers   Reference library

William Jackson

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,360 words
Illustration(s):
5

...very similar equipments, but the Germans and Japanese did not: they were on the defensive by the time the requirement was recognized. (e) Bridging Significant strides were made during the war in speeding up military bridging. The greatest success came with the invention of the British Bailey bridge by Sir Donald Bailey of the Military Engineering Experimental Establishment at Christchurch, Dorset (Figure 5). The Bailey bridge girders were constructed from a series of identical steel lattice panels held together by high-tensile pins at their four corners. Each...

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

Claus Bjørn and Palle Roslyng-Jensen

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of meat, butter, and eggs. Denmark was a democratic monarchy—Christian X ( 1870–1947 ) was king throughout the war—with a population of 3.85 million. Pacifism was widespread and after the First World War a general belief in disarmament dominated Danish politics and the coalition government of social democrats and social liberals, which was led from 1929 to 1940 by Thorvald Stauning ( 1873–1942 ). The Danish military establishment was not held in high regard by the majority of the population, but the rise of the Nazis in Germany after 1933 led to...

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere   Reference library

Ian Nish

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the Greater East Asian war to a successful conclusion and liberating their region from the yoke of British–American domination’. It also mentioned the establishment of co-prosperity; mutual recognition of each other's independence; abolition of racial discrimination; and the need to develop the resources of the region. It claimed to be speaking for the hundreds of millions of the masses of South-East Asia, but as the tide of the naval war had already turned it was widely regarded as an unrealistic piece of propaganda. As the war progressed, and particularly...

Combined Operations

Combined Operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

..., seconded to COHQ, thus making it the first international inter-service headquarters of the war. Another decision was to dismember the ISTDC. One part now came under COHQ's newly appointed Director of Experiments and Developments (later Director of Experiments and Operational Requirements, or DXOR). The other part became the Combined Operations Development Centre which in August 1942 was absorbed into the newly established Combined Ops Experimental Establishment (COXE) in North Devon. DXOR was helped by three remarkable scientists, Geoffrey Pyke ( see ...

land power

land power   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...establishment was totally opposed. Mechanized reconnaissance formations were raised, but the tank remained primarily wedded to the infantry. One of the false lessons from the Spanish Civil War was that the anti-tank gun ( see anti-tank weapons ) had outstripped the tank. This served to reinforce the belief that the tank could not be allowed to operate outside these two roles (infantry support and reconnaissance) unless the opposing side had first been broken by other means. The Red Army also suffered, albeit indirectly, from the Spanish Civil War....

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Reich (Oxford, 1987). Burdick, C. , and Jacobsen, H. -A. (eds.), The Halder War Diary 1939–1942 (Novato, Calif., 1989). Burleigh, M. , The Third Reich. A New History (London, 2000). Calvocoressi, P. et al ., Total War (2nd edn., London, 1989). Förster, J. , ‘The Dynamics of Volksgemeinschaft. The Effectiveness of the German Military Establishment in the Second World War’, in A. R. Millett and W. Murray (eds.), Military Effectiveness. Vol. III: The Second World War (Boston, 1988). Freeman, M. , Atlas of Nazi Germany (New York, 1987)....

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

Ian Armour

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,318 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The fine arts reflected the chasm between establishment and artistic community. Some of the most famous Hungarian artists, such as the photographer-painter László Moholy Nagy or the painter Lajos Tihanyi , lived abroad. Those favoured by the regime still tended towards the neo-Gothic in architecture and sculpture, and an academic historicism in painting. Only towards the end of the inter-war period, after some of the émigrés returned, could the modernist influences apparent in Hungarian art before the First World War begin to reassert themselves. Ian Armour...

View: