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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

domesticity

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...place for women, and the basis for the construction of their identity as wives and mothers in their devotion to the harmonious functioning of the home. The ideology was invoked with particular vigour during the establishment of the post-war welfare state as part of prising women out of the paid work roles they had occupied during the Second World War. See also beveridge report ; carers ; kin-work...

collective welfare

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...welfare Advocacy of communal bonds between citizens as the basis for welfare provision. This concept underpinned the establishment of the post-war welfare state , which saw welfare in terms of the mutual obligations of strangers to each other as an expression of collective responsibility, social solidarity, and altruism , rather than calculated self-interest. This approach was based on an assumed set of collectivist values that were seen as embodied in and represented by the welfare state. It has been increasingly challenged and is largely viewed...

Fabianism

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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2018

...Webb, George Bernard Shaw, and H. G. Wells as a group promoting non-Marxist socialism. It was one of the founding groups of the Labour Party, to which it remains affiliated, but it is organizationally independent. Its ideas were at their most influential during the establishment of the post-war welfare state . All Labour prime ministers have been members of the Fabian Society. The Society continues to play a role as a think tank in the development of political ideas, as well as conducting research into policy...

Beveridge Report

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

... social assistance, family allowances, and the establishment of a free, universal, and comprehensive national health service. All working people were to pay a weekly insurance contribution to the state. In return, benefits would be paid to the unemployed, the sick, the retired, and the widowed, aimed at ensuring there was an acceptable minimum standard of living below which nobody would fall. The post-war Labour government ( 1945–51 ) led by Clement Attlee, deputy prime minister during the war and previously a social worker in the East End of London,...

welfare state

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...and Allied Social Services Act ( 1970 ). The Act required local authorities to establish Social Services Departments . If the establishment and consolidation of social work’s position in the welfare state was the key to understanding its greater prominence, the destabilization of that niche is the key to social work’s subsequent transformation. In the 1970s, inflation increased dramatically, unemployment reached inter-war depression levels, the balance of payments worsened, the value of the pound against the dollar declined, leading to economic...

neo-liberalism

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...the poverty line. Liberalism (in this sense, not in the sense of philosophical values of tolerance and acceptance) had its origins in the laissez-faire economics of early capitalism in the nineteenth century. It continued to be the dominant ideology until the establishment of the post-war welfare state . Thereafter, the welfare state took on the role of modifying the impact of market forces through the provision of a range of benefits and services ‘from the cradle to the grave’. In so doing, it was seen as a means of attempting to stabilize capitalism...

Employee Assistance Programs

Employee Assistance Programs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...Act of 1970 (Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act; 1970 ) led to the organization of the Occupational Alcoholism Branch at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, which furthered this trend by encouraging the establishment of programs at work sites to find, confront, and treat alcoholism. These efforts began to be called EAPs. While EAPs reduced alcoholism, worker productivity continued to be impaired because ending alcohol abuse did not resolve many related problems that these individuals had....

Military Social Work

Military Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...at any given time by DoD varies according to the size of the military establishment. The influence of military social workers on DoD policy relating to the social welfare of the military community and on military missions involving a social welfare or mental health component has also expanded over time. History of Military Social Work Social Work services for uniformed personnel and their families were provided by the American Red Cross from World War I to the end of World War II. From 1942 to 1945 about 1,000 American Red Cross psychiatric social...

International Social Work

International Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...America was opened in Santiago, Chile. With the establishment in 1936 of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Bombay, India, the road to professional social work education was opened in Asia. South Africa in 1924 and Egypt in 1936 initiated programs of social work education, but it was not until the 1960s that schools or departments of social work came into being in most of Africa. After World War II the United Nations became the major motivating force and source of guidance for the establishment of social welfare services and schools of social...

Civil Rights

Civil Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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2008

...States is marked by several notable examples of resistance to infringement on the rights of the individual. Mayflower passengers and later the victims of the Bunker Hill massacre were among the earliest advocates of civil rights. Eventually, the American War of Independence led to the establishment of strong principles, which were to provide a springboard for the attainment of civil rights for classes of citizens who had been ignored by the founders, who enslaved people; denied women rights; and advocated the killing of American Indian men, women, and...

Social Movements

Social Movements   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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2008

...Americans, whose participation in military and defense industries during World War II strengthened their commitment to social equality. Inspired by the 1954 Brown decision and the courage displayed by civil rights activists in the 1955–1956 Montgomery bus boycott, the freedom rides of the early 1960s, Southern voting rights campaigns, and protests against the war in Vietnam, a new generation of activists arose. Although few social workers led civil rights or anti-war organizations, many joined movement-based groups. Social workers, however, played...

Social Welfare Expenditures

Social Welfare Expenditures   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...investments perform. The speed of this shift in private retirement plan structure is remarkable. In 1988 , 63% of full-time employees in establishments with 100 or more workers participated in a defined benefit plan compared with only 34% in 2004 (Parent, 2006 , Table 1, p. 2). This drop was not compensated for by an increase in workers in defined contribution plans. In 1988 , 45% of full-time employees in establishments with 100 or more workers participated in a defined contribution plan compared with 53% in 2004 (Parent, 2006 , Table 1, p. 2). The net...

Community Organization

Community Organization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...were used by settlement house practitioners, such as Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Stanton Coit, to respond to the needs of immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe. World War I ended the stream of immigrants and ushered in a renewed respect for professions and rational planning. Community work during the 1920s reflected those trends, emphasizing social planning that featured the establishment of community-wide fund-raising and community data collection. Social workers such as Follet ( 1918 ), Lindeman ( 1921 ), Petit ( 1925 ), and Steiner ( 1925 ) actively...

Social Services

Social Services   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...establishment, in 1898 , of the New York School of Philanthropy, the first school of professional social work in the world. Government Becomes Involved The private provision of social services, however, flowered following the turn of the century with the addition of medical social services, social services in mental hospitals and clinics, school social services, juvenile court services, and the gradual evolution of the work of the COS agencies into what we now think of as family services. Shortly after the entry of the United States into the First World War,...

Social Work Profession

Social Work Profession   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...assistance for war-impacted communities. Veteran social workers like Bertha Reynolds , who worked for the Personal Service Department of the National Maritime Union, devoted themselves to war work even as she challenged the direction of the profession. New social workers were recruited to war-related social work services. Wars bring about psychological crises for service members whether they are called shell shock (World War I), battlefield neurosis (World War II), or posttraumatic stress disorder (Vietnam and Iraq wars). During World War II, the Army...

Community Development

Community Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...with the establishment of community development corporations (CDCs). They were first established in 1960s through the federal Special Impact Programs and Model Cities. Initiated by racial minority activists with strong ties to economically depressed urban and rural communities, these nonprofit corporations introduced a comprehensive approach that included both social and community economic development. The emphasis was on community empowerment through increased resident participation and housing services, the establishment of small and medium size...

Scotland

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...provision did exist in pockets. Post-war years The immediate post-Second World War years gave the UK government the opportunity to implement the recommendations of the Beveridge Report ( 1942 ), which aimed to address the five giants of want, disease, ignorance, squalor, and idleness through the introduction of the welfare state . The Report led to the National Assistance Act ( 1948 ), which founded the National Assistance Board and established means-tested benefits for the uninsured. The years following World War Two also witnessed specific advances in...

Social Development

Social Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...building, and other matters having practical utility. However, the scope of mass education was so broad that a concept like community development was introduced to capture the essence of all the efforts initiated under it. Community development activities also included the establishment of health centers, small family enterprises, schools, and infrastructure such as bridges, roads, and sanitation and irrigation systems. In 1954 , the term social development was officially adopted by the British government; it included community development and remedial...

Charitable Foundations

Charitable Foundations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...on membership. A basic definition sees foundations as private assets that serve a public purpose, with five core characteristics (see Anheier & Daly, 2006 ): 1. Nonmembership-based organization based on an original deed, typically signified in a charter of incorporation or establishment that gives the entity both intent of purpose and permanence 2. Private entity institutionally separate from government, and “nongovernmental” in the sense of being structurally separate from the public sector 3. Self-governing entity equipped to control its own activities in...

Social Policy

Social Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...programs; riots in Los Angeles, Detroit, Newark, and other cities; and the opposition of local officials brought much of the War on Poverty to a halt. Within a few years, the Nixon administration's call for “law and order” rather than ending poverty became the dominant theme in domestic politics. The eclipse of the War on Poverty represented as well the end of social work's broad influence over social welfare policy. Although the War on Poverty has a significant place in political history, it created relatively few programs that outlived it, relatively few...

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